Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 3, 2015

Investigating Petrologic Indicators of Magmatic Processes in Volcanic Rocks. Pre-eruptive magma mixing and crystal transfer revealed by phenocryst and microlite compositions in basaltic andesite from the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano

Owen K. Neill, Jessica F. Larsen, Pavel E. Izbekov and Christopher J. Nye
From the journal American Mineralogist

Abstract

The August 7-8, 2008, eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano, located in the central Aleutians Islands, Alaska, produced abundant, compositionally heterogeneous basaltic andesite (52-55 wt% SiO2) that has been interpreted to result from pre-eruptive magma mixing. The basaltic andesite contains two populations of plagioclase phenocrysts. The first, volumetrically dominant population consists of oscillatory-zoned phenocrysts with an overall normal zonation trend toward comparatively sodic rims (An55-65), interrupted by dissolution features and spikes in calcium content (up to ~An85). The second population consists of phenocrysts with highly calcic compositions (~An90). These phenocrysts contain sharp decreases in calcium content close to their rims (reaching as low as ~An60), but are otherwise texturally and compositionally homogeneous. Groundmass plagioclase microlites are generally much more calcic than rims of the first phenocryst population, with more than 50% of measured microlites containing >An80. Major, minor, and trace element concentrations of plagioclase microlites and phenocrysts indicate that oscillatory-zoned phenocrysts derived from cooler (800-950 °C), more silicic mixing magma, while unzoned, calcic phenocrysts were associated with hotter (900-1050 °C), mafic magma. The mixing of these magmas just prior to eruption, followed by decompression during the eruption itself created high effective undercoolings in the mafic end-member, and lead to the nucleation of high-An microlites. MgO and FeO concentrations of plagioclase microlites and high-An phenocryst rims (up to ~0.4 and ~1.3 wt%, respectively) provide further evidence for high mixing- and eruptioninduced effective undercoolings.

Received: 2014-3-10
Accepted: 2014-9-20
Published Online: 2015-4-3
Published in Print: 2015-4-1

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