Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 3, 2017

Fluids and trace element transport in subduction zones

Hans Keppler
From the journal American Mineralogist


Melt inclusion data from primitive arc basalts from Mexico and Kamchatka show clear positive correlations of “fluid mobile element”/H2O ratios with the Cl/H2O ratio, suggesting that the trace element content of subduction zone fluids is strongly enhanced by complexing with chloride. This effect is observed for large-ion lithophile (LILE) elements, (e.g., Rb and Sr), but also for the light rare earth elements (REE, e.g., La and Ce) as well as for U. The correlations of these elements with Cl/H2O cannot be explained by the addition of sediment melts or slab melts to the mantle source, since Cl has no effect on the solubility or partitioning of these elements in silicate melt systems. On the other hand, the observed relationship of trace element abundance with Cl is consistent with a large body of experimental data showing greatly enhanced partitioning into aqueous fluid upon addition of chloride. Accordingly, it appears that a dilute, Cl-bearing aqueous fluid is the main carrier of LILE, light REE, and U from the slab to the source of melting in arcs. Moreover, elevated Ce/H2O ratios clearly correlate with fluid salinity and therefore are not suitable as a “slab geothermometer.” From a synopsis of experimental and melt inclusion data, it is suggested that the importance of sediment or slab melting in the generation of arc magmas is likely overestimated, while the effects of trace element scavenging from the mantle wedge may be underestimated. Moreover, establishing reliable data sets for the fluid/mineral partition coefficients of trace elements as a function of pressure, temperature, and salinity requires additional efforts, since most of the commonly used experimental strategies have severe drawbacks and potential pitfalls.


Constructive reviews by Jim Webster, Alexandra Tsay, and Adam Kent helped to improve this manuscript.

References Cited

Adam, J., Green, T.H., Sie, S.H., and Ryan, C.G. (1997) Trace element partitioning between aqueous fluids, silicate melts and minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 9, 569–584.10.1127/ejm/9/3/0569Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, G.M., and Burnham, C.W. (1965) The solubility of quartz in supercritical water. American Journal of Science, 263, 494–511.10.2475/ajs.263.6.494Search in Google Scholar

Antignano, A., and Manning, C.E. (2008) Rutile solubility in H2O, H2O-SiO2, and H2O-NaAlSi3O8 fluids at 0.7–2.0 GPa and 700–1000 °C: Implications for mobility of nominally insoluble elements. Chemical Geology, 255, 283–293.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.07.001Search in Google Scholar

Arculus, R.J., and Powell, R. (1986) Source component mixing in the regions of arc magma generation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 5913–5926.10.1029/JB091iB06p05913Search in Google Scholar

Armstrong, R.L. (1971) Isotopic and chemical constraints on models of magma genesis in volcanic arcs. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 12, 37–142.10.1016/0012-821X(71)90066-5Search in Google Scholar

Audetat, A., and Keppler, H. (2004) Viscosity of fluids in subduction zones. Science, 303, 513–516.10.1126/science.1092282Search in Google Scholar

——— (2005) Solubility of rutile in subduction zone fluids, as determined by experiments in the hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 232, 393–402.10.1016/j.epsl.2005.01.028Search in Google Scholar

Ayers, J.C., and Watson, E.B. (1993) Rutile solubility and mobility in supercritical aqueous fluids. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 114, 321–330.10.1007/BF01046535Search in Google Scholar

Baier, J., Audetat, A., and Keppler, H. (2008) The origin of the negative niobium tantalum anomaly in subduction zone magmas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267, 290–300.10.1016/j.epsl.2007.11.032Search in Google Scholar

Bali, E., Audetat, A., and Keppler, H. (2011) The mobility of U and Th in subduction zone fluids: an indicator of oxygen fugacity and fluid salinity. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 161, 597–613.10.1007/s00410-010-0552-9Search in Google Scholar

Bali, E., Keppler, H., and Audetat, A. (2012) The mobility of W and Mo in subduction zone fluids and the Mo-W-Th-U systematics of island arc magmas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 351, 195–207.10.1016/j.epsl.2012.07.032Search in Google Scholar

Bernini, D., Audetat, A., Dolejs, D., and Keppler, H. (2013a) Zircon solubility in aqueous fluids at high temperatures and pressures. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 119, 178–187.10.1016/j.gca.2013.05.018Search in Google Scholar

Bernini, D., Wiedenbeck, M., Dolejs, D., and Keppler, H. (2013b) Partitioning of halogens between mantle minerals and aqueous fluids: implications for the fluid flow regime in subduction zones. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165, 117–128.10.1007/s00410-012-0799-4Search in Google Scholar

Blundy, J., and Wood, B. (2003) Partitioning of trace elements between crystals and melts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 210, 383–397.10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00129-8Search in Google Scholar

Borchert, M., Wilke, M., Schmidt, C., Cauzid, C., and Tucoulou, R. (2010) Partitioning of Ba, La, Yb and Y between haplogranitic melts and aqueous solutions: An experimental study. Chemical Geology, 276, 225–240.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.06.009Search in Google Scholar

Brenan, J.M., Shaw, H.F., Phinney, D.L., and Ryerson, F.J. (1994) Rutile-aqueous fluid partitioning of Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr, U and Th: implications for high-field strength element depletions in island arc basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 128, 327–339.10.1016/0012-821X(94)90154-6Search in Google Scholar

Brenan, J.M., Shaw, H.F., Ryerson, F.J., and Phinney, D.L. (1995) Mineral-aqueous fluid partitioning of trace elements at 900 °C and 2.0 GPa: Constraints on the trace element chemistry of mantle and deep crustal fluids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 3331–3350.10.1016/0016-7037(95)00215-LSearch in Google Scholar

Brown, L., Klein, J., Middleton, R., Sacks, I.S., and Tera, F. (1982) 10Be in island-arc volcanoes and implications for subduction. Nature, 229, 718–720.10.1038/299718a0Search in Google Scholar

Bureau, H., and Keppler, H. (1999) Complete miscibility between silicate melts and hydrous fluids in the upper mantle: experimental evidence and geochemical implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 165, 187–196.10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00266-0Search in Google Scholar

Cervantes, P., and Wallace, P.J. (2003) Role of H2O in subduction-zone magmatism: New insights from melt inclusions in high-Mg basalts from central Mexico. Geology, 31, 235–238.10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0235:ROHOIS>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Cherniak, D.J., and Dimanov, A. (2010) Diffusion in pyroxene, mica and amphibole. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 72, 641–690.10.2138/rmg.2010.72.14Search in Google Scholar

Cooper, L.B., Ruscitto, D.M., Planck, T., Wallace, P.J., Syracuse, E.M., and Manning, C.E. (2012) Global variations in H2O/Ce: 1. Slab surface temperatures beneath volcanic arcs. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 13, 10.1029/2011GC003902.Search in Google Scholar

Cruz, M.F., and Manning, C.E. (2015) Experimental determination of quartz solubility and melting in the system SiO2-H2O-NaCl at 15–20 kbar and 900–1100 °C: implications for silica polymerization and the formation of supercritical fluids. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 170, 10.1007/s00410-015-1187-7.Search in Google Scholar

Dalou, C., Koga, K.T., Shimizu, N., Boulon, J., and Devidal, J.L. (2012) Experimental determination of F and Cl partitioning between lherzolite and basaltic melt. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 163, 591–609.10.1007/s00410-011-0688-2Search in Google Scholar

Davies, J.H., and Stevenson, D.J. (1992) Physical model of source region of subduction zone volcanics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 2037–2070.10.1029/91JB02571Search in Google Scholar

Demouchy, S. (2010) Diffusion of hydrogen in olivine grain boundaries and implications for the survival of water-rich zones in the Earth’s mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 295, 305–313.10.1016/j.epsl.2010.04.019Search in Google Scholar

Dolejs, D., and Manning, C.E. (2010) Thermodynamic model for mineral solubility in aqueous fluids: theory, calibration, and application to model fluid-flow systems. Geofluids, 10, 20–40.10.1002/9781444394900.ch3Search in Google Scholar

Duc-Tin, Q., and Keppler, H. (2015) Monazite and xenotime solubility in granitic melts and the origin of the lanthanide tetrad effect. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 169, 10.1007/s00410-014-1100-9.Search in Google Scholar

Frezzotti, M.L., and Ferrando, S. (2015) The chemical behavior of fluids released during deep subduction based on fluid inclusions. American Mineralogist, 100, 352–377.10.2138/am-2015-4933Search in Google Scholar

Gerya, T.V., and Yuen, D.A. (2003) Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities from hydration and melting propel ‘cold plumes’ at subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 212, 47–62.10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00265-6Search in Google Scholar

Gill, J. (1981) Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics. Springer, Berlin.10.1007/978-3-642-68012-0Search in Google Scholar

Green, T.H., and Ringwood, T.E. (1968) Genesis of the calc-alkaline igneous rock suite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 18, 105–162.10.1007/BF00371806Search in Google Scholar

Hacker, B.R. (2008) H2O subduction beyond arcs. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q03001, 10.1029/2007GC001707.Search in Google Scholar

Hawkesworth, C.J., Turner, S.P., McDermott, F., Peate, D.W., and van Calsteren, P. (1997) U-Th isotopes in arc magmas: Implications for element transfer from the subducted crust. Science, 276, 551–555.10.1126/science.276.5312.551Search in Google Scholar

Hayden, L.A., and Manning, C.E. (2011) Rutile solubility in supercritical NaAlSi3O8-H2O fluids. Chemical Geology, 284, 74–81.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.02.008Search in Google Scholar

Heger, K., Uematsu, M., and Franck, E.U. (1980) The static dielectric constant of water at high pressures and temperatures to 500 MPa and 550 °C. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für Physikalische Chemie, 84, 758–762.10.1002/bbpc.19800840814Search in Google Scholar

Hermann, J., Spandler, C., Hack, A., and Korsakov, A.V. (2006) Aqueous fluids and hydrous melts in high-pressure and ultra-high pressure rocks: Implications for element transfer in subduction zones. Lithos, 92, 399–417.10.1016/j.lithos.2006.03.055Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, M.C., and Plank, T. (1999) Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 1, 10.1029/1999GC000014.Search in Google Scholar

Kawamoto, T., Yoshikawa, M., Kumagai, Y., Mirabueno, M.H.T., Okuno, M., and Kobayashi, T. (2013) Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 9663–9668.10.1073/pnas.1302040110Search in Google Scholar

Kawamoto, T., Mibe, K., Bureau, H., Reguer, S., Mocuta, C., Kubsky, S., Thiaudiere, D., Ono, S., and Kogiso, T. (2014) Largeion lithophile elements delivered by saline fluids to the sub-arc mantle. Earth Planets and Space, 66, 10.1186/1880-5981-66-61.Search in Google Scholar

Kelemen, PB., Hanghoj, K., and Greene, A.R. (2005) One view of the geochemistry of subduction-related magmatic arcs, with an emphasis on primitive andesite and lower crust. In R.L. Rudnick, Ed., Treatise of Geochemistry, The Crust, vol. 3, p. 593–659. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Search in Google Scholar

Kelley, K.A., and Cottrell, E. (2009) Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas. Science, 325, 605–607.10.1126/science.1174156Search in Google Scholar

Kent, A.J.R., Peate, D.W., Newman, S., Stolper, E.M., and Pearce, J.A. (2002) Chlorine in submarine glasses from the Lau Basin: seawater contamination and constraints on the composition of slab-derived fluids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 202, 361–377.10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00786-0Search in Google Scholar

Keppler, H. (1993) Influence of fluorine on the enrichment of high field strength trace elements in granitic rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 114, 479–488.10.1007/BF00321752Search in Google Scholar

——— (1996) Constraints from partitioning experiments on the composition of subduction-zone fluids. Nature, 380, 237–240.10.1038/380237a0Search in Google Scholar

Kessel, R., Schmidt, M.W., Ulmer, P., and Pettke, T. (2005) Trace element signature of subduction-zone fluids, melts and supercritical liquids at 120–180 km depth. Nature, 437, 724–727.10.1038/nature03971Search in Google Scholar

Kirchbaur, M., and Münker, C. (2015) The behaviour of the extended HFSE group (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf,W, Mo) during the petrogenesis of mafic K-rich lavas: The Eastern Mediterranean case. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 165, 178–199.10.1016/j.gca.2015.05.030Search in Google Scholar

Klein-BenDavid, O., Izraeli, E.S., Hauri, E., and Navon, O. (2007) Fluid inclusions in diamonds from the Diavik mine, Canada and the evolution of diamond-forming fluids. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 723–744.10.1016/j.gca.2006.10.008Search in Google Scholar

König, S., Münker, C., Schuth, S., and Garbe-Schönberg, D. (2008) Mobility of tungsten in subduction zone. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 274, 82–92.10.1016/j.epsl.2008.07.002Search in Google Scholar

Kumagai, Y., Kawamoto, T., and Yamamoto, J. (2014) Evolution of carbon dioxidebearing saline fluids in the mantle wedge beneath the Northeast Japan arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 168, 10.1007/s00410-014-1056-9.Search in Google Scholar

Louvel, M., Sanchez-Valle, C., Malfait, W.J., Cardon, H., Testemale, D., and Hazemann, J.L. (2014) Constraints on the mobilization of Zr in magmatic-hydrothermal processes in subduction zones from in situ fluid-melt partitioning experiments. American Mineralogist, 99, 1616–1625.10.2138/am.2014.4799Search in Google Scholar

Mallik, A., Nelson, J., and Dasgupta, R. (2015) Partial melting of fertile peridotite fluxed by hydrous rhyolitic melt at 2-3 GPa: implications for mantle wedge hybridization by sediment melt and generation of ultrapotassic magmas in convergent margins. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 169, 10.1007/s00410-015-1139-2.Search in Google Scholar

Manning, C.E. (1994) The solubility of quartz in H2O in the lower crust and upper-mantle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 4831–4839.10.1016/0016-7037(94)90214-3Search in Google Scholar

——— (2004) The chemistry of subduction zone fluids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 223, 1–16.10.1016/j.epsl.2004.04.030Search in Google Scholar

Manning, C.E., Wilke, M., Schmidt, C., and Cauzid, J. (2008) Rutile solubility in albite-H2O and Na2Si3O7-H2O at high temperatures and pressures by in-situ synchrotron radiation micro-XRF. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272, 730–737.10.1016/j.epsl.2008.06.004Search in Google Scholar

McGary, R.S., Evans, R.L., Wannamaker, P.E., Elsenbeck, J., and Rondenay, S. (2014) Pathway from subducting slab to surface for melt and fluids beneath Mount Rainier. Nature, 511, 338–340.10.1038/nature13493Search in Google Scholar

Melzer, S., and Wunder, B. (2000) Island-arc basalt alkali ratios: Constraints from phengite-fluid partitioning experiments. Geology, 28, 583–586.10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<583:IBARCF>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Métrich, N., and Wallace, P.J. (2008) Volatile abundances in basaltic magmas and their degassing paths tracked by melt inclusions. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 69, 363–402.10.1515/9781501508486-011Search in Google Scholar

Michael, P. (1995) Regionally distinctive sources of depleted MORB—evidence from trace-elements and H2O. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 131, 301–320.10.1016/0012-821X(95)00023-6Search in Google Scholar

Peacock, S.M. (1990) Fluid processes in subduction zones. Science, 248, 329–337.10.1126/science.248.4953.329Search in Google Scholar

Pearce, J.A., Stern, R.J., Bloomer, S.H., and Fryer, P. (2005) Geochemical mapping of the Mariana arc-basin system: Implications for the nature and distribution of subduction components. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 6, Q07006, 10.1029/2004GC000895.Search in Google Scholar

Peate, D.W., Kokfelt, T.F., Hawkesworth, C.J., van Calsteren, P.W., Hergt, J.M., and Pearce, J.A. (2001) U-series isotope data on Lau Basin glasses: the role of subduction-related fluids during melt generation in back-arc basins. Journal of Petrology, 42, 1449–1470.10.1093/petrology/42.8.1449Search in Google Scholar

Plank, T., and Langmuir, C.H. (1993) Tracing trace-elements from sediment input to volcanic output at subduction zones. Nature, 362, 739–743.10.1038/362739a0Search in Google Scholar

Plank, T., Cooper, L.B., and Manning, C.E. (2009) Emerging geothermometers for estimating slab surface temperatures. Nature Geoscience, 2, 611–615.10.1038/ngeo614Search in Google Scholar

Ponader, C.W., and Brown, G.E. (1989) Rare-earth elements in silicate glass melt systems. 2. Interactions of La, Gd, and Yb with halogens. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2905–2914.10.1016/0016-7037(89)90167-1Search in Google Scholar

Portnyagin, M., Hoernle, K., Plechov, P., Mironov, N., and Khubunaya, S. (2007) Constraints on mantle melting and composition and nature of slab components in volcanic arcs from volatiles (H2O, S, Cl, F) and trace elements in melt inclusions from the Kamchatka Arc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 255, 53–69.10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.005Search in Google Scholar

Rüpke, L.H., Phipps Morgan, J., Hort, M., and Connolly, J.A.D. (2004) Serpentine and the subduction zone water cycle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 223, 17–34.10.1016/j.epsl.2004.04.018Search in Google Scholar

Ruscitto, D.M., Wallace, P.J., and Kent, A.J.R. (2011) Revisiting the compositions and volatile contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Mount Shasta region: implications for the formation of high-Mg andesites. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 162, 109–132.10.1007/s00410-010-0587-ySearch in Google Scholar

Ryabchikov, I.D., Orlova, G.P., Kalenchuk, G.Y., Ganeyev, I.I., Udovkina, N.G., and Nosik, L.P (1989) Reactions of spinel lherzolite with H2O-CO2 fluids at 20 kbar and 900 °C. Geochemistry International, 26, 56–62.Search in Google Scholar

Saal, A.E., Hauri, E.H., Langmuir, C.H., and Perfit, M.R. (2002) Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature, 419, 451–455.10.1038/nature01073Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt, M.W., and Poli, S. (1998) Experimentally based water budgets for dehydrating slabs and consequences for arc magma generation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 163, 361–379.10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00142-3Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt, M.W., Vielzeuf, D., and Auzanneau, E. (2004) Melting and dissolution of subducting crust at high pressures: the key role of white mica. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228, 65–84.10.1016/j.epsl.2004.09.020Search in Google Scholar

Shannon, R.D. (1976) Revised effective ionic-radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides. Acta Crystallographica, A32, 751–767.10.1107/S0567739476001551Search in Google Scholar

Shen, A.H., and Keppler, H. (1997) Direct observation of complete miscibility the albite-H2O system. Nature, 385, 710–712.10.1038/385710a0Search in Google Scholar

Spandler, C., and Pirard, C. (2013) Element recycling from subducting slabs to arc crust: A review. Lithos, 170-171, 208–223.10.1016/j.lithos.2013.02.016Search in Google Scholar

Spandler, C., Mavrogenes, J., and Hermann, J. (2007) Experimental constraints on element mobility from subducted sediments using high-P synthetic fluid/melt inclusions. Chemical Geology, 239, 228–249.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.10.005Search in Google Scholar

Stalder, R., Foley, S.F., Brey, G.P., and Horn, I. (1998) Mineral aqueous fluid partitioning of trace elements at 900–1200 °C and 3.0–5.7 GPa: New experimental data for garnet, clinopyroxene, and rutile, and implications for mantle metasomatism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 1781–1801.10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00101-XSearch in Google Scholar

Stolper, E., and Newman, S. (1994) The role of water in the petrogenesis of Mariana trough magmas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 121, 293–325.10.1016/0012-821X(94)90074-4Search in Google Scholar

Sverjensky, D.A., Harrison, B., and Azzolini, D. (2014) Water in the deep Earth: The dielectric constant and the solubilities of quartz and corundum to 60 kb and 1200 °C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 129, 125–145.10.1016/j.gca.2013.12.019Search in Google Scholar

Syracuse, E.M., van Keken, P.E., and Abers, G.A. (2010) The global range of subduction zone thermal models. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 183, 73–90.10.1016/j.pepi.2010.02.004Search in Google Scholar

Tang, M., Chen, K., and Rudnick, R.L. (2016) Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics. Science, 351, 372–375.10.1126/science.aad5513Search in Google Scholar

Tatsumi, Y. (1989) Migration of fluid phases and genesis of basalt magmas in subduction zones. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 4697–4707.10.1029/JB094iB04p04697Search in Google Scholar

Tropper, P., and Manning, C.E. (2005) Very low solubility of rutile in H2O at high pressure and temperature, and its implications for Ti mobility in subduction zones. American Mineralogist, 90, 502–505.10.2138/am.2005.1806Search in Google Scholar

Tropper, P., Manning, C.E., and Harlov, D.E. (2011) Solubility of CePO4 monazite and YPO4 xenotime in H2O and H2O-NaCl at 800 °C and 1 GPa: Implications for REE and Y transport during high-grade metamorphism. Chemical Geology, 282, 58–66.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.01.009Search in Google Scholar

Tsay, A., Zajacz, Z., and Sanchez-Valle, C. (2014) Efficient mobilization and fractionation of rare-earth elements by aqueous fluids upon slab dehydration. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 398, 101–112.10.1016/j.epsl.2014.04.042Search in Google Scholar

Turner, S., and Foden, J. (2001) U, Th and Ra disequilibria, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and trace element variations in Sunda arc lavas: predominance of a subducted sediment component. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 142, 43–57.10.1007/s004100100271Search in Google Scholar

Turner, S.J., and Langmuir, C.H. (2015) What processes control the chemical composition of arc front stratovolcanoes? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 16, 1865–1893.10.1002/2014GC005633Search in Google Scholar

Ulmer, P., and Trommsdorff, V. (1995) Serpentine stability to mantle depths and subduction-related magmatism. Science, 268, 858–861.10.1126/science.268.5212.858Search in Google Scholar

Van Orman, J.A., Grove, T.L., and Shimizu, N. (2001) Rare earth element diffusion in diopside: influence of temperature, pressure, and ionic radius, and an elastic model for diffusion. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 141, 687–703.10.1007/s004100100269Search in Google Scholar

Watson, E.B., and Harrison, T.M. (1983) Zircon saturation revisited–temperature and composition effects in a variety of crustal magma types. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 64, 295–304.10.1016/0012-821X(83)90211-XSearch in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Vetere, F., Botcharnikov, R.E., Goldoff, B., McBirney, A., and Doherty, A.L. (2015) Experimental and modeled chlorine solubilities in aluminosilicate melts at 1 to 7000 bars and 700 to 1250 °C: Applications to magmas of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. American Mineralogist, 100, 522–535.10.2138/am-2015-5014Search in Google Scholar

Weingärtner, H., and Franck, E.U. (2005) Supercritical water as a solvent. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 44, 2672–2692.10.1002/anie.200462468Search in Google Scholar

Weiss, Y., McNeill, J., Pearson, D.G., Nowell, G.M., and Ottley, C.J. (2015) Highly saline fluids from a subducting slab as the source for fluid-rich diamonds. Nature, 524, 339–342.10.1038/nature14857Search in Google Scholar

Wilke, M., Schmidt, C., Dubrail, J., Appel, K., Borchert, M., Kvashnina, K., and Manning, C.E. (2012) Zircon solubility and zirconium complexation in H2O+Na2O+SiO2 ± Al2O3 fluids at high pressure and temperature. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 349, 15–25.10.1016/j.epsl.2012.06.054Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, C.A., Spiegelmann, M., van Keken, P.E., and Hacker, B.R. (2014) Fluid flow in subduction zones: The role of solid rheology and compaction pressure. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 401, 261–274.10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.052Search in Google Scholar

Woodhead, J.D., Hergt, J.M., Davidson, J.P., and Eggins, S.M. (2001) Hafnium isotope evidence for ‘conservative’ element mobility during subduction zone processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 192, 331–346.10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00453-8Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Z., and Duan, Z. (2005) Prediction of the PVT properties of water over wide range of temperatures and pressures from molecular dynamics simulation. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 149, 335–354.10.1016/j.pepi.2004.11.003Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-2-9
Accepted: 2016-6-19
Published Online: 2017-1-3
Published in Print: 2017-1-1

© 2017 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston