Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 3, 2017

Hydroxyl, Cl, and F partitioning between high-silica rhyolitic melts-apatite-fluid(s) at 50–200 MPa and 700–1000 °C

James D. Webster, Beth A. Goldoff, Ryan N. Flesch, Patricia A. Nadeau and Zachary W. Silbert
From the journal American Mineralogist

Abstract

Hydrothermal experiments were conducted with fluid- and apatite-saturated, high-silica rhyolitic melts at ca. 700–1000 °C and 50–200 MPa to determine the distribution of H2O/OH, Cl, and F between melt, apatite, aqueous vapor, brine, or vapor plus brine. Seed grains of fluorapatite (1–3 µm diameter) were added to starting charges to serve as apatite nucleation sites. CaHPO4 and Ca(OH)2 were used to stimulate apatite crystallization, and temperature was cycled daily, ±10 to ±15 °C, to promote growth of relatively equant apatite crystals large enough for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The experiments were conducted with gold capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels on a hydrothermal line and an internally heated gas pressure vessel for durations of 165 to 1149 h.

The run-product glasses were analyzed by EPMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, apatites by EPMA, and most fluid phases by chloridometer; Cl contents of fluids were also estimated by mass-balance calculations. The fluids contained 0.3–39 wt% Cl at run conditions. Most experiments were conducted at 50 MPa, and these glasses contain 0.02–0.42 wt% Cl, 1.8–3.1 wt% H2O, and 0.01–0.19 wt% F. The molar Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O+K2O) (=A/CNK) and molar Na2O/(Na2O+K2O)(=N/NK) ratios of the 50 MPa glasses range from 0.88 to 1.04 and 0.48 to 0.68, respectively, and straddle the A/CNK and N/NK of the starting glass (0.99 and 0.59, respectively). The measured wt% Cl and F in the 50 MPa apatites range from 0.14 to 3.8 ( XClAp of 0.02 to 0.56) and 0.32 to 2.4 ( XFAp of 0.08 to 0.63), respectively. Stoichiometrically constrained XOHAp ranges from 0.14 to 0.7.

Partition and exchange coefficients were determined for OH, Cl, and F distribution between apatite and melt±fluids. The distribution of these volatile components varies with pressure and melt and apatite compositions. The exchange of F and Cl between apatite and melt, for example, fluctuates with the Si, P, Mg, Na, Ce, Fe, and S±Ca contents of the apatite and with the molar A/CNK and N/NK ratios of the melts. Water and hydroxyl exchange between experimental apatite and melt was also investigated. It is determined empirically that the: XH2Omelt/XClmelt = [(−19.66) + (39.13) XOHAp/XClAp] for felsic melts at 50 to 200 MPa, having molar A/CNK ratios between 0.88 and 1.1, N/NK ratios >0.55, and containing ca. 2–6 wt% H2O. The apatites are characterized by per formula unit (6 > Si/Mg > 0.3). We test this relationship by comparing H2O contents measured in melt inclusions from Augustine volcano, Alaska, with calculated H2O concentrations of melts based on compositions of apatites from 9 samples from 7 of its felsic eruptive units. The results for both approaches are consistent within precision for 6 of the samples.

The empirical volatile exchange relationships determined for melt-apatite, melt-fluid, and apatite-fluid pairs are applicable to various magmatic systems. One implication of this study is that the H2O concentrations of felsic melts may be calculated from apatite compositions for volcanic systems involving equilibrium between these phases at 50 to 200 MPa, if estimates for the Cl contents of the melts are available. This approach, however, will require additional experimentation and testing. The compositions of igneous apatites could also provide fundamental constraints on the concentrations of H2O and other volatiles in mineralizing plutonic systems for which melt inclusions are small, rare, and/or crystallized. Magmatic apatites may also support assessment of H2O concentrations in melts derived from melt inclusion compositions.

Acknowledgments

We appreciate discussions on apatite-melt thermodynamic relations with Philip Piccoli, Francis McCubbin, and Jeremy Boyce, and detailed reviews by D. Harlov and two anonymous referees. This research was supported by NSF award EAR-0836741 and EAR-1219484 to J.D.W. Synthetic apatites used as microprobe standards were provided by Daniel Harlov.

References cited

Antignano, A., and Manning, C.E. (2008) Fluorapatite solubility in H2O and H2O–NaCl at 700 to 900 °C and 0.7 to 2.0 GPa. Chemical Geology, 251, 112–119.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.03.001Search in Google Scholar

Audetat, A., and Lowenstern, J.B. (2014) Melt inclusions. In H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian, Eds., Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits, Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd ed.), 1314317310.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.01106-2.Search in Google Scholar

Baker, D.R. (2008) The fidelity of melt inclusions as records of melt composition. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 156, 377–395.10.1007/s00410-008-0291-3Search in Google Scholar

Barnes, J.J., Tartese, R., Anand, M., McCubbin, F.M., Franchi, I.A., Starkey, N.A., and Russell, S.S. (2014) The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 390, 244–252.10.1016/j.epsl.2014.01.015Search in Google Scholar

Bodnar, R.J., Burnham, C.W., and Sterner, S.M. (1985) Synthetic fluid inclusions in natural quartz, III: determination of phase equilibrium properties in the system H2O-NaCl to 1000°C and 1500 bars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 1861–1873.10.1016/0016-7037(85)90081-XSearch in Google Scholar

Botcharnikov, R.E., Behrens, H., and Holtz, F. (2006) Solubility and speciation of C-O-H fluids in andesitic melt at T = 1100°C and P = 200 and 500 MPa. Chemical Geology, 229, 125–143.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.01.016Search in Google Scholar

Botcharnikov, R.E., Holtz, F., and Behrens, H. (2007) The effect of CO2 on the solubility of H2O-Cl fluids in andesitic melt. European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 671–680.10.1127/0935-1221/2007/0019-1752Search in Google Scholar

Boyce, J.W., Liu, Y., Rossman, G.R., Guan, Y., Eiler, J.M., Stolper, E.M., and Taylor, L.A. (2010) Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances. Nature, 466, 466–470.10.1038/nature09274Search in Google Scholar

Boyce, J.W., Tomlinson, S.M., McCubbin, F.M., Greenwood, J.P., and Treiman, A.H. (2014) The lunar apatite paradox. Science, 344, 400–402.10.1126/science.1250398Search in Google Scholar

Brenan, J.M. (1993) Partitioning of fluorine and chlorine between apatite and aqueous fluids at high pressure and temperature: Implications for the F and Cl content of high P-T fluids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 117(1–2), 251–263.10.1016/0012-821X(93)90131-RSearch in Google Scholar

(1994) Kinetics of fluorine, chlorine and hydroxyl exchange in fluorapatite. Chemical Geology, 110, 195–210.10.1016/0009-2541(93)90254-GSearch in Google Scholar

Candela, P.A. (1986) Toward a thermodynamic model for the halogens in magmatic systems: An application to melt-vapor-apatite equilibria. Chemical Geology, 57, 289–301.10.1016/0009-2541(86)90055-0Search in Google Scholar

Doherty, A., Webster, J.D. Goldoff, B., and Piccoli, P. (2014) Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in felsic melt-fluid(s)-apatite systems at 50 MPa and 850–950 °C. Chemical Geology, 3849411110.1016/j. chemgeo.2014.06.023.Search in Google Scholar

Dreisner, T., and Heinrich, C.A. (2007) The system H2O-NaCl. Part I: Correlation formulae for phase relations in temperature-pressure-composition space from 0 to 1000°C, 0 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 4880–4901.10.1016/j.gca.2006.01.033Search in Google Scholar

Esposito, R., Lamadrid, H.M., Redi, D., Steele-MacInnis, M., Bodnar, R.J., Manning, C.E., De Vivo, B., Cannatelli, C., and Lima, A. (2016) Detection of liquid H2O in vapor bubbles in reheated melt inclusions: Implications for magmatic fluid composition and volatile budgets of magmas. American Mineralogist, 101, 1691–1695.10.2138/am-2016-5689Search in Google Scholar

Fleet, M.E., Liu, X., and Pan, Y. (2000) Site preference of rare earth elements in hydroxylapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 149, 391–398.10.1006/jssc.1999.8563Search in Google Scholar

Ghiorso, M.S., and Gualda, G.A.R. (2015) An H2O-CO2 mixed fluid saturation model compatible with rhyolite-MELTS. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 169, 53–71.10.1007/s00410-015-1141-8Search in Google Scholar

Goldoff, B., Webster, J.D., and Harlov, D. (2012) Characterization of fluorchlorapatites by electron probe microanalysis with a focus on time-dependent intensity variation of halogens. American Mineralogist, 97, 1103–1115, 10.2138/am.2012.3812.Search in Google Scholar

Greenwood, J.P., Itoh, S., Sakamoto, N., Warren, P., Taylor, L., and Yurimoto, H. (2011) Hydrogen isotope ratios in lunar rocks indicate delivery of cometary water to the Moon. Nature Geoscience, 4, 79–82.10.1038/ngeo1050Search in Google Scholar

Gross, J., Filiberto, J., and Bell, A.S. (2013) Water in the martian interior: Evidence for terrestrial MORB mantle-like volatile contents from hydroxyl-rich apatite in olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 62345. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 369–370, 120–128.10.1016/j.epsl.2013.03.016Search in Google Scholar

Hughes, J.M., Heffernan, K.M., Goldoff, B., and Nekvasil, H. (2015) Cl-rich fluorapatite, devoid of OH, from the Three Peaks area, Utah: the first reported structure of natural Cl-rich fluorapatite. Canadian Mineralogist, 10.3749/ canmin.1400014.Search in Google Scholar

Jarosewich, E., Nelen, J.A., and Norberg, J.A. (1980) Reference samples for electron microprobe analysis. Geostandards Newsletter, 4(1), 43–47.10.1111/j.1751-908X.1980.tb00273.xSearch in Google Scholar

Johnston, D.A. (1978) Volatiles, magma mixing, and the mechanism of eruption of Mt. St. Augustine Volcano, Alaska, Seattle, Washington, 177 p. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.Search in Google Scholar

Kusebauch, C., John, T., Whitehouse, M.J., Klemme, S., and Putnis, A. (2015) Distribution of halogens between fluid and apatite during fluid-mediated replacement processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 170, 225–246.10.1016/j.gca.2015.08.023Search in Google Scholar

Lowenstern, J.B. (1994) Chlorine, fluid immiscibility, and degassing in peralkaline magmas from Pantelleria, Italy. American Mineralogist, 79, 353–369.Search in Google Scholar

Macdonald, R., Smith, R.L., and Thomas, J.E. (1992) Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1523, 214 p.10.3133/pp1523Search in Google Scholar

Mandeville, C.M., Webster, J.D., Rutherford, M.J., Taylor, B.E., Timbal, A., and Faure, K. (2002) Determination of molar absorptivities for infrared absorption bands of H2O in andesitic glasses. American Mineralogist, 87, 813–821.10.2138/am-2002-0702Search in Google Scholar

Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Whitehouse, M.J., Loose, M., Zack, T., Barth, M., Worgard, L., Krasz, V., Eby, G.N., Stosnach, H., and Markl, G. (2012) The volatile inventory (F, Cl, Br, S, C) of magmatic apatite: An integrated analytical approach. Chemical Geology, 291, 241–255.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.10.026Search in Google Scholar

Mathez, E.A., and Webster, J.D. (2005) Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in the system apatite-silicate melt-fluid. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69(5), 1275–1286.10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.035Search in Google Scholar

McCubbin, F.M., and Jones, R.H. (2015) Extraterrestrial apatite: planetary geochemistry to astrobiology. Elements, 11, 183–188.10.2113/gselements.11.3.183Search in Google Scholar

McCubbin, F.M., Steele, A., Hauri, E.H., Nekvasil, H., Yamashita, S., and Hemley, F.J. (2010a) Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 11223–11228.10.1073/pnas.1006677107Search in Google Scholar

McCubbin, F.M., Steele, A., Nekvasil, H., Schnieders, A., Rose, T., Fries, M., Carpenter, P.K., and Jolliff, B.L. (2010b) Detection of structurally bound hydroxyl in fluorapatite from Apollo mare basalt 15058,128 using TOF-SIMS. American Mineralogist, 95, 1141–1150.10.2138/am.2010.3448Search in Google Scholar

McCubbin, F.M., Vander Kaaden, K.E., Tartese, R., Whitson, E.S., Anand, M., Franchi, I.A., Mikhail, S., Ustunisik, G., Hauri, E.H., Wang, J., and Boyce, J.W. (2014) Apatite-melt partitioning in basaltic magmas: The importance of exchange equilibria and the incompatibility of the OH component in halogen-rich apatite. 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract 2741.Search in Google Scholar

McCubbin, F.M., Boyce, J.W., Srinivasan, P., Santos, A.R., Elardo, S.M., Filiberto, J., Steele, A., and Shearer, C.K. (2016) Heterogeneous distribution of H2O in the Martian interior: Implications for the abundance of H2O in depleted and enriched mantle sources. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 51, 2036–2060.10.1111/maps.12639Search in Google Scholar

Moore, G., Vennemann, T., and Carmichael, I.S.E. (1998) An empirical model for the solubility of H2O in magmas to 3 kilobars. American Mineralogist, 83, 36–42.10.2138/am-1998-1-203Search in Google Scholar

Moore, L.R., Gazel, E., Tuohy, R., Lloyd, A.D., Esposito, R., Steele-MacInnis, M., Hauri, E.H., Wallace, P.J., Plank, T., and Bodnar, R.J. (2015) Bubbles matter: An assessment of the contribution of vapor bubbles to melt inclusion volatile budgets. American Mineralogist, 100, 806–823.10.2138/am-2015-5036Search in Google Scholar

Nadeau, P.A., Webster, J.D., Mandeville, C.W., Goldoff, B.A., Shimizu, N., and Monteleone, B. (2015) A glimpse into Augustine volcano’s pre-glacial past: insight from a massive rhyolite deposit. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, 304–323.10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.034Search in Google Scholar

Newman, S., and Lowenstern, J.B. (2002) VolatileCalc: A silicate melt-H2O-CO2 solution model written in visual basic for excel. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 597–604.10.1016/S0098-3004(01)00081-4Search in Google Scholar

Nowak, M., and Behrens, H. (1995) The speciation of water in haplogranitic glasses and melts determined by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 3345–3450.10.1016/0016-7037(95)00237-TSearch in Google Scholar

Pan, Y., and Fleet, M. (2002) Compositions of apatite-group minerals: Substitution mechanisms and controlling factors. In M.J. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds., Phosphates—Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance, 48, p. 13–49. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.10.1515/9781501509636-005Search in Google Scholar

Patel, P.N. (1980) Magnesium calcium hydroxylapatite solid solutions. Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, 42, 1129–1132.10.1016/0022-1902(80)80422-2Search in Google Scholar

Patiño Douce, A.E., and Roden, M.F. (2006) Apatite as a probe of halogen and water fugacities in the terrestrial planets. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 3173–3196.10.1016/j.gca.2006.03.016Search in Google Scholar

Patiño Douce, A.E., Roden, M.F., Chaumba, J., Fleisher, C., and Yogodzinski, G. (2011) Compositional variability of terrestrial mantle apatites, thermodynamic modeling of apatite volatile contents, and the halogen and water budgets of planetary mantles. Chemical Geology, 288, 14–31.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.05.018Search in Google Scholar

Peng, G.Y., Luhr, J.F., and McGee, J.J. (1997) Factors controlling sulfur concentrations in volcanic apatite. American Mineralogist, 82, 1210–1224.10.2138/am-1997-11-1217Search in Google Scholar

Piccoli, P.M. (1992) Apatite chemistry in felsic magmatic systems. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.Search in Google Scholar

Piccoli, PM., and Candela, PA. (1994) Apatite in felsic rocks; a model for the estimation of initial halogen concentrations in the Bishop Tuff (Long Valley) and Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (Sierra Nevada Batholith) magmas. American Journal of Science, 294, 92–135.10.2475/ajs.294.1.92Search in Google Scholar

——— (2002) Apatite in igneous systems. In M.J. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds., Phosphates-Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance, 48, p. 255–292. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.Search in Google Scholar

Roman, D.C., Cashman, K.V., Gardner, C.A., Wallace, P.A., and Donovan, J.J. (2006) Storage and interaction of compositionally heterogeneous magmas from the 1986 eruption of Augustine volcano, Alaska. Bulletin of Volcanology, 68, 240–254.10.1007/s00445-005-0003-zSearch in Google Scholar

Sarafian, A.R., Roden, M.F., and Patino-Douce, A.E. (2013) The volatile content of Vesta: Clues from apatite in eucrites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48, 2135–2154.10.1111/maps.12124Search in Google Scholar

Shinohara, H. (1994) Exsolution of immiscible vapor and liquid phases from a crystallizing silicate melt: implications for chlorine and metal transport. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 5215–5221.10.1016/0016-7037(94)90306-9Search in Google Scholar

Shinohara, H., Ilyama, J.T., and Matsuo, S. (1989) Partition of chlorine compounds between silicate melt and hydrothermal solutions: Partition of NaCl-KCl. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2617–2630.10.1016/0016-7037(89)90133-6Search in Google Scholar

Signorelli, S., and Carroll, M.R. (2000) Solubility and fluid-melt partitioning of Cl in hydrous phonolite melts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 2851–2862.10.1016/S0016-7037(00)00386-0Search in Google Scholar

Stock, M.J., Humphreys, M.C.S., Smith, V.C., Johnson, R.D., and Pyle, D.M. (2015) Apatite as magmatic volatile probe: quantifying the mechanisms and rates of EPMA-induced halogen migration. American Mineralogist, 100, 281–293.10.2138/am-2015-4949Search in Google Scholar

Stock, M.J., Humphreys, M.C.S., Smith, V.C., Isaia, R., and Pyle, D.M. (2016) Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions. Nature Geoscience, 10.1038.NGEO2639.Search in Google Scholar

Stormer, J.C., Pierson, M.L., and Tacker, R.C. (1993) Variation of F and Cl X-ray intensity due to anisotropic diffusion in apatite during electron microprobe analysis. American Mineralogist, 78, 641–648.Search in Google Scholar

Symonds, R.B., Rose, W.I., Gerlach, T.M., Briggs, P.H., and Harmon, R.S. (1990) Evaluation of gases, condensates, and SO2 emissions from Augustine volcano, Alaska: the degassing of a Cl-rich volcanic system. Bulletin Volcanology, 52(5), 355–374.10.1007/BF00302048Search in Google Scholar

Tacker, R.C. (2004) Hydroxyl ordering in igneous apatite. American Mineralogist, 89, 1411–1421.10.2138/am-2004-1008Search in Google Scholar

Tappen, C., Webster, J., Mandeville, C., and Roderick, D. (2009) Petrology and geochemistry of ca. 2100–1000 a.b.p. magmas of Augustine volcano, Alaska, based on analysis of prehistoric pumiceous tephra. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 183, 42–62, 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.03.007.Search in Google Scholar

Tartese, R., Anand, M., Barnes, J.J., Starkey, N.A., Franchi, I.A., and Sano, Y. (2013) The abundance, distribution, and isotopic composition of hydrogen in the Moon as revealed by basaltic lunar samples: implications for the volatile inventory of the Moon. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 122, 58–74.10.1016/j.gca.2013.08.014Search in Google Scholar

Tartese, R., Anand, M., McCubbin, F.M., Elardo, S.M., Shearer, C.K., and Franchi, I.A. (2014) Apatites in lunar KREEP basalts: The missing link to understanding the H isotope systematics of the Moon. Geology, 42, 363–366.10.1130/G35288.1Search in Google Scholar

Vander Kaaden, K.E., McCubbin, F.M., Whitson, E.S., Hauri, E.H., and Wang, J. (2012) Partitioning of F, Cl, and H2O between apatite and a synthetic Shergottite liquid (QUE 94201) at 1.0 GPa and 990–1000°C. 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract 1247.Search in Google Scholar

Wallace, P.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., and Cervantes, P. (2015) Melt inclusion CO2 contents, pressures of olivine crystallization, and the problem of shrinkage bubbles. American Mineralogist, 100, 787–794.10.2138/am-2015-5029Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D. (1992) Water solubility and chlorine partitioning in Cl-rich granitic systems: Effects of melt composition at 2 kbar and 800°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56, 679–687.10.1016/0016-7037(92)90089-2Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., and Mandeville, C.W. (2007) Fluid immiscibility in volcanic systems. In A. Leibscher and C. Heinrich, Eds., Fluid-Fluid Equilibria in the Crust, 65, p. 313–362. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.10.2138/rmg.2007.65.10Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., and Rebbert, C.R. (1998) Experimental investigation of H2O and Cl solubilities in F-enriched silicate liquids: implications for volatile saturation of topaz rhyolite magmas. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 132, 198–207.10.1007/s004100050416Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Tappen, C., and Mandeville, C. (2009) Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in the system apatite-melt-fluid; II, Felsic silicate systems at 200 MPa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 3, 559–581, 10.1016/j. gca.2008.10.034.Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Mandeville, C., Goldoff, B., Coombs, M., and Tappen, C. (2010) Augustine Volcano; the influence of volatile components in magmas erupted A.D. 2006 to 2,100 years before present. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 383–423.10.3133/pp176916Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Goldoff, B., and Shimizu, N. (2011) COHS fluids and granitic magma: how S partitions and modifies CO2 concentrations of fluid-saturated felsic melt at 200 MPa. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 162, 849–865.10.1007/s00410-011-0628-1Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Piccoli, P., and Goldoff, B.A. (2012) Resolving histories of magmatic volatiles in fluids and silicate melts as a function of pressure, temperature, and melt composition through apatite geochemistry. EOS, abstract V21D-02.Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Sintoni, M.F., Goldoff, B., De Vivo, B., and Shimizu, N. (2014) C-O-H-S-Cl-F volatile component solubilities and partitioning in phonolitic-trachytic melts and aqueous-carbonic vapor ± saline liquid at 200 MPa. Journal of Petrology, 55(11), 2217–2248.10.1093/petrology/egu055Search in Google Scholar

Webster, J.D., Vetere, F., Botcharnikov, R.E., Goldoff, B., McBirney, A., and Doherty, A.L. (2015) Experimental and modeled chlorine solubilities in aluminosilicate melts at 1 to 7000 bars and 700 to 1250°C: Applications to magmas of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. American Mineralogist, 100, 522–535.10.2138/am-2015-5014Search in Google Scholar

Wolf, M.B., and London, D. (1994) Apatite dissolution into peraluminous haplogranitic melts: An experimental study of solubilities and mechanisms. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 4127–4145.10.1016/0016-7037(94)90269-0Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-2-28
Accepted: 2016-8-23
Published Online: 2017-1-3
Published in Print: 2017-1-1

© 2017 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston