Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 28, 2018

Biodegradabiliy of spherical mesoporous silica particles (MCM-41) in simulated body fluid (SBF)

  • Elena Boccardi , Anahì Philippart , Ana M. Beltrán , Jochen Schmidt , Liliana Liverani , Wolfgang Peukert and Aldo R. Boccaccini EMAIL logo
From the journal American Mineralogist


Mesoporous silica particles of type MCM-41 (Mobile Composition of Matter No. 41), exhibiting highly ordered mesoporosity (pores with diameter between 2 and 50 nm) and surface roughness, are developed and used as a functional coating on bioactive glass-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The degradability and the mesostructure stability of these novel MCM-41 particles were evaluated. The particles are immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 28 days at 37 °C, and the variation of the ordered porosity, surface characteristics, and chemical composition of the particles are assessed by SEM-EDX, HRTEM, FTIR, ICP-OES, and pH measurements. The results indicate that the MCM-41 particles are affected by immersion in SBF only during the first few days; however, the surface and the mesopore structure of the particles do not change further with increasing time in SBF. The pore channel diameter increased slightly, confirming the stability of the developed material. The release of dissolved Si-species, which reached a maximum of 260 mg SiO2 per gram of material, could play a key role in gene activation of osteoblast cells and in inducing new bone matrix formation.

† Current address: Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencia de los Materiales y del Transporte Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Seville, Spain

† Special collection papers can be found online at


Liliana Liverani acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 657264. Ana M. Beltrán thanks Talent-Hub Program funded by the Junta de Andalucía and the European Commission under the Co-funding of the 7th Framework Program in the People Program (Marie Curie Special Action). The authors also acknowledge the Laboratory for Nanoscopies and Spectroscopies (LANE) at the ICMS (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) for use of their TEM facilities.

References cited

Beck, J.S., Chu, C.T.-W., Johnson, I.D., Kresge, C.T., Leonwicz, M.E., and Roth, W.J. (1992) Synthesis of mesoporous crystalline material. U.S. Patent 50,108,725.Search in Google Scholar

Boccardi, E. (2016) Natural marine derived bioactive glass based scaffolds with improved functionalities, 185 p. Ph.D. thesis, University of Erlangen- Nuremberg, Germany.Search in Google Scholar

Boccardi, E., Philippart, A., Juhasz-Bortuzzo, J.A., Beltrán, A.M., Novajra, G., Vitale-Brovarone, C., Spiecker, E., and Boccaccini, A.R. (2015) Uniform Surface Modification of 3D Bioglass®-Based Scaffolds with Mesoporous Silica Particles (MCM-41) for Enhancing Drug Delivery Capability. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 3, 177, 1–12.10.3389/fbioe.2015.00177Search in Google Scholar

Cai, Q., Luo, Z.-S., Pang, W.-Q., Fan, Y.-W., Chen, X.-H., and Cui, F.-Z. (2001) Dilute solution routes to various controllable morphologies of MCM-41 silica with a basic medium. Chemistry of Materials, 13, 258–263.10.1021/cm990661zSearch in Google Scholar

Cerruti, M., Greenspan, D., and Powers, K. (2005) Effect of pH and ionic strength on the reactivity of Bioglass® 45S5. Biomaterials, 26, 1665–1674.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.07.009Search in Google Scholar

Grün, M., Lauer, I., and Unger, K.K. (1997) The synthesis of micrometer- and submicrometer-size spheres of ordered mesoporous oxide MCM-41. Advanced Materials, 9, 254–257.10.1002/adma.19970090317Search in Google Scholar

Grün, M., Unger, K.K., Matsumoto, A., and Tsutsumi, K. (1999) Novel pathways for the preparation of mesoporous MCM-41 materials: control of porosity and morphology. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 27, 207–216.10.1016/S1387-1811(98)00255-8Search in Google Scholar

Hench, L.L. (2006) The story of Bioglass. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 17, 967–978.10.1007/s10856-006-0432-zSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Izquierdo-Barba, I., Colilla, M., Manzano, M., and Vallet-Regí, M. (2010) In vitro stability of SBA-15 under physiological conditions. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 132, 442–452.10.1016/j.micromeso.2010.03.025Search in Google Scholar

Kokubo, T., and Takadama, H. (2006) How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity? Biomaterials, 27, 2907–2915.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.01.017Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Maçon, A.L.B., Kim, T.B., Valliant, E.M., Goetschius, K., Brow, R.K., Day, D.E., Hoppe, A., Boccaccini, A.R., Kim, I.Y., Ohtsuki, C., and others. (2015) A unified in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of bioactive glasses and their variants. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 26, 115.10.1007/s10856-015-5403-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Mortera, R., Onida, B., Fiorilli, S., Cauda, V., Brovarone, C.V., Baino, F., Vernè, E., and Garrone, E. (2008) Synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 spheres inside bioactive glass–ceramic scaffold. Chemical Engineering Journal, 137, 54–61.10.1016/j.cej.2007.07.094Search in Google Scholar

Peitl, O., Dutra Zanotto, E., and Hench, L.L. (2001) Highly bioactive P2O5–Na2O– CaO–SiO2 glass-ceramics. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 292, 115–126.10.1016/S0022-3093(01)00822-5Search in Google Scholar

Schneider, C.A., Rasband, W.S., and Eliceiri, K.W. (2012) NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods, 9, 671–675.10.1038/nmeth.2089Search in Google Scholar

Stöber, W., Fink, A., and Bohn, E. (1968) Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 26, 62–69.10.1016/0021-9797(68)90272-5Search in Google Scholar

Vallet-Regi, M., Rámila, A., del Real, R.P., and Pérez-Pariente, J. (2001) A new property of MCM-41: Drug delivery system. Chemistry of Materials, 13, 308–311.10.1021/cm0011559Search in Google Scholar

Vallet-Regí, M., Ruiz-González, L., Izquierdo-Barba, I., and González-Calbet, J.M. (2006) Revisiting silica based ordered mesoporous materials: medical applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 16, 26.10.1039/B509744DSearch in Google Scholar

Vallet-Regí, M., Manzano-García, M., and Colilla, M. (2012a) Biomedical applications of mesoporous ceramics, 231 p. CRC Press.10.1201/b12959Search in Google Scholar

Vallet-Regí, M., Izquierdo-Barba, I., and Colilla, M. (2012b) Structure and functionalization of mesoporous bioceramics for bone tissue regeneration and local drug delivery. Philosophical Transactions, Series A, 370, 1400–1421.10.1098/rsta.2011.0258Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Wu, C., and Chang, J. (2014) Multifunctional mesoporous bioactive glasses for effective delivery of therapeutic ions and drug/growth factors. Journal of Controlled Release, 193, 1–14.10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.04.026Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhao, D., Wan, Y., and Zhou, W. (2013) Ordered Mesoporous Materials, 544 p. Wiley.10.1002/9783527647866Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, K., Solodovnyk, A., Li, W., Goudouri, O.-M., Stähli, C., Nazhat, S.N., and Boccaccini, A.R. (2015) Aging time and temperature effects on the structure and bioactivity of gel-derived 45S5 glass-ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 98, 30–38.10.1111/jace.13258Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-8-22
Accepted: 2017-11-19
Published Online: 2018-2-28
Published in Print: 2018-3-26

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 27.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button