Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 2, 2018

On the relative timing of listwaenite formation and chromian spinel equilibration in serpentinites

  • Hisham A. Gahlan , Mokhles K. Azer and Paul D. Asimow EMAIL logo
From the journal American Mineralogist


Ultramafic rocks exposed at the Earth’s surface generally record multiple stages of evolution that may include melt extraction, serpentinization, carbonatization, and metamorphism. When quantitative thermometry based on mineral chemistry is applied to such rocks, it is often unclear what stage of their evolution is being observed. Here, in peridotites with extensive replacement of silicate minerals by carbonates (listwaenites), we present a case study that addresses the timing of carbonate formation relative to closure of exchange reactions among relict primary minerals.

Massive and schistose serpentinized peridotites of Neoproterozoic age outcrop at Gabal Sirsir, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (northwestern corner of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or ANS). Petrography, bulk composition, and mineral chemistry are all consistent with a strongly depleted mantle harzburgite protolith for the serpentinites. Bulk compositions are low in Al2O3 and CaO and high in Mg# [molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.89–0.93]. Relict spinel has high Cr# [molar Cr/(Cr+Al)] and low Ti, while relict olivine has high Mg# and NiO contents. Based on compositions of coexisting relict olivine and chromian spinel, the protolith experienced 19 to 21% partial melt extraction. Such high degrees of partial melting indicate a supra-subduction zone environment, possibly a forearc setting.

Along thrust faults and shear zones, serpentinites are highly altered to form talc-carbonate rocks and weathering-resistant listwaenites that can be distinguished petrographically into Types I and II. The listwaenitization process took place through two metasomatic stages, associated first with formation of the oceanic crustal section and near-ridge processes (~750–700 Ma) and subsequently during obduction associated with the collision of East and West Gondwana and escape tectonics (~650–600 Ma). In the first stage, Mg# of chromian spinel in the serpentinites continuously changed due to subsolidus Mg–Fe2+ redistribution, while the Mg# of chromian spinel in the Type I listwaenites was frozen due to the absence of coexisting mafic silicates. During the second stage, the Type II listwaenites formed along shear zones accompanied by oxidation of relict chromian spinel to form ferritchromite and Cr-bearing magnetite in both serpentinites and listwaenites. The high Cr# of chromian spinel relics in both serpentinites and listwaenites preserves primary evidence of protolith melt extraction, but divalent cations are more easily mobilized at low temperature. Hence, relict chromian spinel in listwaenites shows significantly higher Mg# and lower MnO than that in serpentinite, suggesting that nearly complete alteration of ultramafic rocks to form listwaenite took place prior to re-equilibration between chromian spinel and the surrounding mafic minerals in serpentinites. Furthermore, the ferritchromite in the serpentinites has higher Mn content (1.1–2.1 wt%) than that in the listwaenites (0.6–0.9 wt%), indicating its formation after carbonatization since carbonate minerals are a favorable sink for Mn.


M.K.A.’s visit to the California Institute of Technology was supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development Cairo Initiative. P.D.A. acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation, award EAR-1551433. Special thanks are paid to King Saud University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Research Group No. RG-1436-036, for their suppprt.

References cited

Abd El-Rahman, Y., Polat, A., Dilek, Y., Fryer, B.J., El-Sharkawy, M., and Sakran, S. (2009) Geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic incipient arc-fore-arc crust in the Fawakhir area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Precambrian Research, 175, 116–134.10.1016/j.precamres.2009.09.008Search in Google Scholar

Abd El-Rahman, Y., Helmy, H.M., Shibata, T., Yoshikawa, M., Arai, S., and Tamura, A. (2012) Mineral chemistry of the Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type Akarem Intrusion with special emphasis on amphibole: Implications for the pluton origin and evolution of subduction-related magma. Lithos, 155, 410–425.10.1016/j.lithos.2012.09.015Search in Google Scholar

Abdeen, M.M., Sadek, M.F., and Greiling, R.O. (2008) Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 52, 21–29.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2008.03.003Search in Google Scholar

Abdel-Karim, A.M., and El-Shafei, S.A. (2017) Mineralogy and chemical aspects of some ophiolitic metaultramafics, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidences from chromites, sulphides and gangues. Geological Journal, 10.1002/gj.2914.Search in Google Scholar

Ahmed, A.H., Arai, S., and Attia, A.K. (2001) Petrological characteristics of podiform chromitites and associated peridotites of the Pan African ophiolite complexes of Egypt. Mineralium Deposita, 36, 72–84.10.1007/s001260050287Search in Google Scholar

Ali, K.A., Azer, M.K., Gahlan, H.A., Wilde, S.A., Samuel, M.D., and Stern, R.J. (2010) Age constraints on the formation and emplacement of Neoproterozoioc ophiolites along the Allaqi-Heiani suture, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Gondwana Research, 18, 583–595.10.1016/ in Google Scholar

Andrew, K. (1985) Fluid inclusion and chemical studies of gold-quartz veins in the Atlin Camp, Northwestern British Columbia, 116 pp. B.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

Arai, S. (1980) Dunite-harzburgite-chromitite complexes as refractory residue in the Sangun-Yamaguchi zone, western Japan. Journal of Petrology, 21, 141–165.10.1093/petrology/21.1.141Search in Google Scholar

Arai, S. (1992) Chemistry of chromian spinel in volcanic rocks as a potential guide to magma chemistry. Mineralogical Magazine, 56, 173–184.10.1180/minmag.1992.056.383.04Search in Google Scholar

Arai, S. (1994) Characterization of spinel peridotites by olivine-spinel compositional relationships: Review and interpretations. Chemical Geology, 113, 191–204.10.1016/0009-2541(94)90066-3Search in Google Scholar

Arif, M., and Jan, M.Q. (2006) Petrotectonic significance of the chemistry of chromite in the ultramafic-mafic complexes of Pakistan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27, 628–646.10.1016/j.jseaes.2005.06.004Search in Google Scholar

Ash, C.H., and Arksey, R.L. (1990) The listwanite-lode gold association in British Columbia. Geological Survey Branch, Geological Fieldwork 1989, Paper, 1990-1, 359–364.Search in Google Scholar

Aydal, D. (1990) Gold-bearing listwaenites in the Arac Massif, Kastamonu, Turkey. Terra Nova, 2, 43–52.10.1111/j.1365-3121.1990.tb00035.xSearch in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K. (2013) Evolution and economic significance of listwaenites associated with Neoproterozoic ophiolites in south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Geologica Acta, 11(1), 113–128.Search in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K. (2014) Petrological studies of Neoproterozoic serpentinized ultramafics of the Nubian Shield: Spinel compositions as evidence of the tectonic evolution of the Egyptian ophiolites. Acta Geologica Polonica, 64, 113–127.10.2478/agp-2014-0006Search in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K., and El-Gharbawy, R.I. (2011) Contribution to the Neoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Gabal Imleih, south Sinai, Egypt: Implication of post-collisional magmatism in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 60, 253–272.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2011.03.010Search in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K., and Khalil, A.E.S. (2005) Petrological and mineralogical studies of Pan-African serpentinites at Bir Al-Edeid area. Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 43, 525–536.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.09.008Search in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K., and Stern, R.J. (2007) Neoproterozoic (835–720 Ma) serpentinites in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: Fragments of fore-arc mantle. The Journal of Geology, 115, 457–472.10.1086/518052Search in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K., Samuel, M.D., Ali, K.A., Gahlan, H.A., Stern, R.J., Ren, M., and Moussa, H.E. (2013) Neoproterozoic ophiolitic peridotites along the Allaqi-Heiani Suture, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107, 829–848.10.1007/s00710-012-0204-zSearch in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K., Obeid, M.A., and Gahlan, H.A. (2016) Late Neoproterozoic layered mafic intrusion of arc-affinity in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A case study from the Shahira layered mafic intrusion, southern Sinai, Egypt. Geologica Acta, 14, 237–259.Search in Google Scholar

Azer, M.K., Gahlan, H.A., Asimow, P.D., and Al-Kahtany, K.M. (2017) The Late Neoproterozoic Dahanib mafic-ultramafic intrusion, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: is it an Alaskan-type or a layered intrusion? American Journal of Science, 317, 901–940.10.2475/08.2017.02Search in Google Scholar

Barnes, S.J., and Roeder, P.L. (2001) The range of spinel compositions in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. Journal of Petrology, 42, 2279–2302.10.1093/petrology/42.12.2279Search in Google Scholar

Beccaluva, L., Coltori, M., Giunta, G., and Siena, F. (2004) Tethyan vs. Cordilleran ophiolites: a reappraisal of distinctive tectono-magmatic features of supra-subduction complexes in relation to subduction mode. Tectonophysics, 393, 163–174.10.1016/j.tecto.2004.07.034Search in Google Scholar

Belogub, E.V., Melekestseva, I.Y., Novoselov, K.A., Zabotina, M.V., Tret’yakov, G.A., Zaykov, V.V., and Yuminov, A.M. (2017) Listvenite-related gold deposits of the South Urals (Russia): A review. Ore Geology Reviews, 85, 247–270.10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.11.008Search in Google Scholar

Bjerga, A., Konopásek, J., and Pedersen, R.B. (2015) Talc–carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks within the Leka Ophiolite Complex, Central Norway. Lithos, 227, 21–36.10.1016/j.lithos.2015.03.016Search in Google Scholar

Bloomer, S.H., Taylor, B., MacLeod, C.J., Stern, R.J., Fryer, P., Hawkins, J.W., and Johnson, L. (1995) Early arc volcanism and ophiolite problem: A perspective from drilling in the Western Pacific. In B. Taylor and J. Natland, Eds., Active Margins and Marginal Basins of the Western Pacific, Geophysical Monograph, 88, p. 1–30. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.10.1029/GM088p0001Search in Google Scholar

Bonatti, E., and Michael, P.J. (1989) Mantle peridotites from continental rifts to ocean basins to subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 91, 297–311.10.1016/0012-821X(89)90005-8Search in Google Scholar

Boskabadi, A., Pitcairn, I.K., Broman, C., Boyce, A., Teagle, D.A.H., Cooper, M.J., Azer, M.K., Mohamed, F.H., Stern, R.J., and Majka, J. (2017) Carbonate alteration of ophiolitic rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield of Egypt: sources and compositions of the carbonating fluid and implications for the formation of Au deposits. International Geology Review, 59(4), 391–419.10.1080/00206814.2016.1227281Search in Google Scholar

Botros, N.S. (1993) New prospects for gold mineralization in Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 19, 47–56.Search in Google Scholar

Botros, N.S. (2002) Metallogeny of gold in relation to the evolution of the Nubian Shield in Egypt. Ore Geology Review, 19, 137–164.10.1016/S0169-1368(01)00035-XSearch in Google Scholar

Botros, N.S. (2004) A new classification of the gold deposits of Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews, 25, 1–37.10.1016/j.oregeorev.2003.07.002Search in Google Scholar

Bourdelle, F., and Cathelineau, M. (2015) Low-temperature chlorite geothermometry: a graphical representation based on a T–R2+–Si diagram. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 617–626.10.1127/ejm/2015/0027-2467Search in Google Scholar

Bourdelle, F., Parra, T., Chopin, C., and Beyssac, O. (2013) A new chlorite geothermometer for diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic conditions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165, 723–735.10.1007/s00410-012-0832-7Search in Google Scholar

Buisson, G., and Leblanc, M. (1985) Gold in carbonatized ultramafic rocks from ophiolite complexes. Economic Geology, 80, 2026–2029.10.2113/gsecongeo.80.7.2028Search in Google Scholar

Buisson, G., and Leblanc, M. (1986) Gold-bearing listwaenites (carbonatized ultramafic rocks) from ophiolite complexes. In J.M. Gallagher, R.A. Ixer, and C.R. Neary, Eds., Metallogeny of Basic and Ultrabasic Rocks, p. 121–132. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London.Search in Google Scholar

Buisson, G., and Leblanc, M. (1987) Gold in mantle peridotites from Upper Proterozoic ophiolites in Arabia, Mali, and Morocco. Economic Geology, 82, 2091–2097.10.2113/gsecongeo.82.8.2091Search in Google Scholar

Burkhard, D.J.M. (1993) Accessory chromium spinels: their coexistence and alteration in serpentinites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 1297–1306.10.1016/0016-7037(93)90066-6Search in Google Scholar

Cathelineau, M. (1988) Cation site occupancy in chlorites and illites as a function of temperature. Clay Minerals, 23, 471–485.10.1180/claymin.1988.023.4.13Search in Google Scholar

Cathelineau, M., and Nieva, D. (1985) A chlorite solid solution geothermometer. The Los Azufrez (Mexico) geothermal system. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 91, 235–244.10.1007/BF00413350Search in Google Scholar

Coish, R.A., and GardnerP. (2004) Suprasubduction-zone peridotite in the northern USA Appalachians: evidence from mineral composition. Mineralogical Magazine, 68, 699–708.10.1180/0026461046840214Search in Google Scholar

Colás, V., González-Jiménez, J.M., Griffin, W.L., Fanlo, I., Gervilla, F., O’Reilly, S.Y., Pearson, N.J., Kerestedjian, T., and Proenza, J.A. (2014) Fingerprints of metamorphism in chromite: new insights from minor and trace elements. Chemical Geology, 389, 137–152.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.10.001Search in Google Scholar

Crocket, J.H. (1991) Distribution of gold in the Earth’s crust. In R.P. Foster, Ed., Gold Metallogeny and Exploration, pp. 1–36. Blackie, Glasgow.10.1007/978-1-4613-0497-5_1Search in Google Scholar

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., and Zussman, J. (1992) An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals, 2nd ed., 696 p. Longman, London.Search in Google Scholar

Deschamps, F., Guillot, S., Godard, M., Andreani, M., and Hattori, K.H. (2011) Serpentinites act as sponges for fluid-mobile elements in abyssal and subduction zone environments. Terra Nova, 23, 171–178.10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.00995.xSearch in Google Scholar

Deschamps, F., Godard, M., Guillot, S., Chauvel, C., Andreani, M., Hattori, K., Wunder, B., and France, L. (2012) Behavior of fluid-mobile elements in serpentines from abyssal to subduction environments: Examples from Cuba and Dominican Republic. Chemical Geology, 312-313, 93–117.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.04.009Search in Google Scholar

Deschamps, F., Godard, M., Guillot, S., and Hattori, K. (2013) Geochemistry of subduction zone serpentinites: A review. Lithos, 178, 96–127.10.1016/j.lithos.2013.05.019Search in Google Scholar

Dick, H.J.B., and Bullen, T. (1984) Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator in abyssal and Alpine-type peridotites and spatially associated lavas. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 86, 54–76.10.1007/BF00373711Search in Google Scholar

El Bayoumi, R.M. (1983) Ophiolites and mélange complex of Wadi Ghadir area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Bulletin of Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, 6, 329–342.Search in Google Scholar

El Sayed, M.M., Furnes, H., and Mohamed, F.H. (1999) Geochemical constraints on the tectono-magmatic evolution of the late Precambrian Fawakhir ophiolite, Central eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 29, 515–533.10.1016/S0899-5362(99)00113-XSearch in Google Scholar

El Sharkawy, M.A., and El Bayoumi, R.M. (1979) The ophiolites of Wadi Ghadir area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Annals of the Geological Survey of Egypt, 9, 125–135.Search in Google Scholar

Falk, E.S., and Kelemen, P.B. (2015) Geochemistry and petrology of listvenite in the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman: Complete carbonation of peridotite during ophiolite emplacement. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 160, 70–90.10.1016/j.gca.2015.03.014Search in Google Scholar

Fallick, A.E., Ilich, M., and Russell, M.J. (1991) A stable isotope study of the magnesite deposits associated with the Alpine-type ultramafic rocks of Yugoslavia. Economic Geology, 86, 847–861.10.2113/gsecongeo.86.4.847Search in Google Scholar

Farahat, E.S. (2008) Chromian-spinels in serpentinites and talc carbonates of the El Ideid-El-Sodmein District, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: their metamorphism and petrogenetic implications. Chemie der Erde, 68, 193–205.10.1016/j.chemer.2006.01.003Search in Google Scholar

Farahat, E.S., and Helmy, H.M. (2006) Abu Hamamid Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type complex, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 45, 187–197.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.02.003Search in Google Scholar

Farahat, E.S., El Mahalawi, M.M., and Hoinkes, G. (2004) Continental back-arc basin origin of some ophiolites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Mineralogy and Petrology, 82, 81–104.10.1007/s00710-004-0052-6Search in Google Scholar

Gahlan, H., Arai, S., and Almadani, S. (2015a) Petrogenesis of carbonated metaultramafic lenses from the Neoproterozoic Heiani ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: A natural analogue to CO2 sequestration. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 102, 102–115.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.11.002Search in Google Scholar

Gahlan, H., Azer, M., and Khalil, A.E.S. (2015b) The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectono-magmatic evolution. Mineralogy and Petrology, 109, 611–630.10.1007/s00710-015-0397-zSearch in Google Scholar

Ghoneim, M.F. (1989) Mineral chemistry of some gabbroic rocks of the central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 9, 289–295.10.1016/0899-5362(89)90071-7Search in Google Scholar

Ghoneim, M.F., Salem, I.A., and Hamdy, M.M. (1999) On the petrogenesis of magnesite from Gebel El-Maiyit, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Fourth International Conference on the Geology of the Arab World, 1, 575–593.Search in Google Scholar

Ghoneim, M.F., Salem, I.A., and Hamdy, M.M. (2003) Origin of magnesite veins in serpentinites from Mount El-Rubshi and Mount El-Maiyit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Archiwum Mineralogiczne, 54, 41–63.Search in Google Scholar

González-Jiménez, J.M., Kerestedjian, T., Proenza, J.A., and Gervilla, F. (2009) Metamorphism on chromite ores from the Dobromirtsi Ultramafic Massif, Rhodope Mountains (SE Bulgaria). Geologica Acta, 7, 413–429.Search in Google Scholar

Halls, C., and Zhao, R. (1995) Listwaenite and related rocks: perspectives on terminology and mineralogy with reference to an occurrence at Cregganbaun, Co. Mayo, Republic of Ireland. Mineralium Deposita, 30, 303–313.10.1007/BF00196366Search in Google Scholar

Hamdy, M.M., and Gamal El Dien, H.M. (2017) Nature of serpentinization and carbonation of ophiolitic peridotites (Eastern Desert, Egypt): constrains from stable isotopes and whole rock geochemistry. Arabian Journal of Geoscience, 10.1007/s12517-017-3215-6.Search in Google Scholar

Hamdy, M.M., and Lebda, E.M. (2007) Metamorphism of ultramafic rocks at Gebel Arais and Gebel Malo Grim, Eastern Desert, Egypt: mineralogical and O-H stable isotopic constraints: Egyptian Journal of Geology, 51, 105–124.Search in Google Scholar

Harraz, H.Z. (2000) A genetic model for a mesothermal Au deposit: Evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopic studies at El Sid gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 30, 267–282.10.1016/S0899-5362(00)00019-1Search in Google Scholar

Hattori, K.H., and Guillot, S. (2003) Volcanic fronts form as a consequence of serpentinite dehydration in the forearc mantle wedge. Geology, 31(6), 525–528.10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0525:VFFAAC>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Hattori, K.H., and Guillot, S. (2007) Geochemical character of serpentinites associated with high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps, Cuba, and the Himalayas: Recycling of elements in subduction zones. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 8, 9.10.1029/2007GC001594Search in Google Scholar

Hellebrand, E., Snow, J.E., Dick, H.J.B., and Hoffmann, A.W. (2001) Coupled major and trace elements as indicators of the extent of melting in mid-ocean ridge peridotites. Nature, 410, 677–681.10.1038/35070546Search in Google Scholar

Helmy, H.M., and El Mahallawi, M.M. (2003) Gabbro Akarem mafic-ultramafic complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt: a Late Precambrian analogue of Alaskan-type complex. Mineralogy and Petrology, 77, 85–108.10.1007/s00710-001-0185-9Search in Google Scholar

Hey, M.H. (1954) A new review of the chlorites. Mineralogical Magazine, 30, 272–292.10.1180/minmag.1954.030.224.01Search in Google Scholar

Hillier, S., and Velde, B. (1991) Octahedral occupancy and the chemical composition of diagenetic (low-temperature) chlorites. Clay Minerals, 26, 149–168.10.1180/claymin.1991.026.2.01Search in Google Scholar

Irvine, T.N. (1965) Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator: Part 1. Theory. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 2, 648–672.10.1139/e65-046Search in Google Scholar

Irvine, T.N. (1967) Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator: Part 2. Petrologic applications. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 4, 71–103.10.1139/e67-004Search in Google Scholar

Ishii, T., Robinson, P.T., Maekawa, H., and Fiske, R. (1992) Petrological studies of peridotites from diapiric Serpentinite Seamounts in the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana forearc, leg 125. In J. Pearce, L.B. Stokking et al., Eds., Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Project, Leg 125, Scientific Results (College Station), p. 445–485.10.2973/ in Google Scholar

Jarrar, G., Stern, R.J., Saffarini, G., and Al-Zubi, H. (2003) Late- and post-orogenic Neoproterozoic intrusions of Jordan: implications for crustal growth in the northernmost segment of the East African orogen. Precambrian Research, 123, 295–319.10.1016/S0301-9268(03)00073-1Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, P.R., and Woldehaimanot, B. (2003) Development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Perspectives on accretion and deformation in the northern East African Orogen and the assembly of Gondwana. In M. Yoshida, S. Dasgupta, and B. Windley, Eds., Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent assembly and breakup, 206, p. 289–325. Geological Society of London Special Publications.10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.206.01.15Search in Google Scholar

Kelemen, P.B., Matter, J., Streit, E.E., Rudge, J.F., Curry, W.B., and Bluztajn, J. (2011) Rates and mechanisms of mineral carbonation in peridotite: Natural processes and recipes for enhanced, in situ CO2 capture and storage: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 39, 545–576.10.1146/annurev-earth-092010-152509Search in Google Scholar

Khalil, A.E.S., and Azer, M.K. (2007) Supra-subduction affinity in the Neoproterozoic serpentinites in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidence from mineral composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 49, 136–152.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2007.08.002Search in Google Scholar

Khalil, A.E.S., Obeid, M.A., and Azer, M.K. (2014) Serpentinized peridotites at the north part of Wadi Allaqi district (Egypt): Implications for the tectono-magmatic evolution of fore-arc crust. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88, 1421–1436.10.1111/1755-6724.12309Search in Google Scholar

Klemm, D.D., Klemm, R., and Murr, A. (2001) Gold of the Pharaohs—6000 years of goldmining in Egypt and Nubia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 33, 643–659.10.1016/S0899-5362(01)00094-XSearch in Google Scholar

Koç, S., and Kadioğlu, Y.K. (1996) Mineralogy, geochemistry and precious metal content of Karacakaya (Yunusemre-Eskisehir) listwaenites. Ofioliti, 21, 125–130.Search in Google Scholar

Kranidiotis, P., and MacLean, W.H. (1987) The systematics of chlorite alteration at the Phelps Dodge massive sulfide deposit, Matagami, Quebec. Economic Geology, 82, 1898–1911.10.2113/gsecongeo.82.7.1898Search in Google Scholar

Lebda, E.M. (1995) Petrology and mineral chemistry of serpentinite rocks of the Gogolow-Jordanow Massif, SW Poland. Ph.D. thesis, Wroclaw University, Poland, 189 p.Search in Google Scholar

Madu, B.E., Nesbitt, B.E., and Muehlenbachs, K. (1990) A mesothermal gold-stibnite-quartz vein occurrence in the Canadian Cordillera. Economic Geology, 85, 1260–1268.10.2113/gsecongeo.85.6.1260Search in Google Scholar

McDonough, W.F., and Sun, S.S. (1995) Composition of the Earth. Chemical Geology, 120, 223–253.10.1016/S0074-6142(01)80077-2Search in Google Scholar

Meert, J.G. (2003) A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonophysics, 362, 1–40.10.1016/S0040-1951(02)00629-7Search in Google Scholar

Mellini, M., Rumori, C., and Viti, C. (2005) Hydrothermally reset magmatic spinels in retrograde serpentinites: formation of ‘ferritchromit’ rims and chlorite aureoles. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 149, 266–275.10.1007/s00410-005-0654-ySearch in Google Scholar

Mirnejad, H., Ebrahimi-Nasrabadi, K., Lalonde, A.E., and Taylor, B.E. (2008) Mineralogy, stable isotope geochemistry, and paragenesis of magnesite deposits from the ophiolite belt of Eastern Iran. Economic Geology, 103, 1703–1713.10.2113/gsecongeo.103.8.1703Search in Google Scholar

Moghadam, H.S., Khedr, M.Z., Arai, S., Stern, R.J., Ghorbani, G., Tamura, A., and Ottley, C.J. (2015) Arc-related harzburgite–dunite–chromitite complexes in the mantle section of the Sabzevar ophiolite, Iran: a model for formation of podiform chromitites. Gondwana Research, 27, 575–593.10.1016/ in Google Scholar

Newton, R.C., and Stern, R.J. (1990) A Late Precambrian CO2 “Event”. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Dallas, 190.Search in Google Scholar

Obeid, M.A., Khalil, A.E.S., and Azer, M.K. (2016) Mineralogy, geochemistry and geotectonic significance of the Neoproterozoic ophiolite of Wadi Arais area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Internal Geological Review, 58, 687–702.10.1080/00206814.2015.1105727Search in Google Scholar

Ohara, Y., Stern, R.J., Ishii, T., Yurimoto, H., and Yamazaki, T. (2002) Peridotites from the Mariana Trough: first look at the mantle beneath an active back-arc basin. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 143, 1–18.10.1007/s00410-001-0329-2Search in Google Scholar

Oskierski, H.C., Bailey, J.G., Kennedy, E.M., Jacobsen G., Ashley, P.M., and Dlugogorski, B.Z. (2013) Formation of weathering-derived magnesite deposits in the New England Orogen, New South Wales, Australia: implications from mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Attunga magnesite deposit. Mineral Deposita 48, 525–541.10.1007/s00126-012-0440-5Search in Google Scholar

Osman, A. (1995) The mode of occurrence of gold-bearing listvenite at El Barramiya gold mine, Eastern desert, Egypt. Middle East Research Centre. Ain Shams University. Earth Sciences Series, 9, 93–103.Search in Google Scholar

Oweiss, Kh.A., El Naggar, A.A., Abdel Razik, K.A., Moselhy, N., and Ali, A.B. (2001) Gold exploration at Heiani area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Annals Geological Survey of Egypt, XXIV, 435–450.Search in Google Scholar

Page, P., and Barnes, S.J. (2009) Using trace elements in chromites to constrain the origin of podiform chromitites in the Thetford Mines Ophiolite, Québec, Canada. Economic Geology, 104, 997–1018.10.2113/econgeo.104.7.997Search in Google Scholar

Paulick, H., Bach, W., Godard, M., Hoog, C.J., Suhr, G., and Harvey, J. (2006) Geochemistry of abyssal peridotites (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 15 20′N, ODP Leg 209): implications for fluid/rock interaction in slow spreading environments. Chemical Geology, 234, 179–210.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.04.011Search in Google Scholar

Pearce, J.A., Lippard, S.J., and Roberts, S. (1984) Characteristics and tectonic significance of supra-subduction zone ophiolites. In P.B. Kokelaar and M.F. Howells, Eds., Marginal Basin Geology, 16, p. 77–94. Geological Society of London, Special Publication.10.1144/GSL.SP.1984.016.01.06Search in Google Scholar

Pearce, J.A., Barker, P.F., Edwards, S.J., Parkinson, I.J., and Leat, P.T. (2000) Geochemistry and tectonic significance of peridotites from the South Sandwich arc-basin system, South Atlantic. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 139, 36–53.10.1007/s004100050572Search in Google Scholar

Proenza, J.A., Ortega-Gutierrez, F., Camprubi, A., Tritlla, J., Elias-Herrera, M., and Reyes-Salas, M. (2004) Paleozoic serpentinites enclosed chromitites from Tehuitzingo (Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico): a petrological and mineralogical study. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 16, 649–666.10.1016/j.jsames.2003.12.003Search in Google Scholar

Proenza, J.A., Zaccarini, F., Escayola, M., Cábana, C., Shalamuk, A., and Garuti, G. (2008) Composition and textures of chromite and platinum group minerals in chromitites of the western ophiolitic belt from Pampean ranges of Córdoba, Argentina. Ore Geology Reviews, 33(1), 32–48.10.1016/j.oregeorev.2006.05.009Search in Google Scholar

Qiu, T., and Zhua, Y. (2017) Chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange, Xinjiang, NW China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, in Google Scholar

Ramadan, T.M. (2002) Exploration for gold-bearing listwaenites at Um Khasila area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, 5, 63–76.Search in Google Scholar

Ramadan, T.M., Sadek, M.F., Abu El Leil, I., and Salem, S.M. (2005) Um El Touyur El Fuqani gold mineralization, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: using Landsat ETM+ imagery. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 28, 263–281.Search in Google Scholar

Rittmann, A. (1958) Geosynclinal volcanism, ophiolites and Barramiya rocks. The Egyptian Journal of Geology, 2, 61–66.Search in Google Scholar

Robinson, P.T., Trumbull, R.B., Schmitt, A., Yang, J.S., Li, J.W., Zhou, M.F., and Xiong, F. (2015) The origin and significance of crustal minerals in ophiolitic chromitites and peridotites. Gondwana Research, 27, 486–506.10.1016/ in Google Scholar

Saldi, G.D., Schott, J., Pokrovsky, O.S., Gautier, Q., and Oelkers, E.H. (2012) An experimental study of magnesite precipitation rates at neutral to alkaline conditions and 100–200 °C as a function of pH, aqueous solution composition and chemical affinity. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 83, 93–109.10.1016/j.gca.2011.12.005Search in Google Scholar

Salem, I.A., Ghoneim, M.F., Zahran, A.A., and Hamdy, M.M. (1997) Petrology and genesis of the ultramafic-hosted vein magnesite deposits at G. El-Rubshi, central Eastern Desert, Egypt. 3rd International Conference on Geochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria-Egypt, 241–267.Search in Google Scholar

Salters, V.J.M., and Stracke, A. (2004) Composition of the depleted mantle. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 5, Q05B07, 27 p.10.1029/2003GC000597Search in Google Scholar

Saumur, B.M., and Hattori, K. (2013) Zoned Cr-spinel and ferritchromite alteration in forearc mantle serpentinites of the Rio San Juan complex, Dominican Republic. Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 117–136.10.1180/minmag.2013.077.1.11Search in Google Scholar

Schandl, E.S., and Gorton, M.P. (2012) Hydrothermal alteration and CO2 metasomatism (natural carbon sequestration) of komatiites in the south-western Abitibi greenstone belt. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 129–146.10.3749/canmin.50.1.129Search in Google Scholar

Schandl, E.S., and Wicks, F.J. (1993) Carbonate and associated alteration of ultramafic and rhyolitic rocks at the Hemingway Property, Kidd Creek Volcanic Complex, Timmins, Ontario. Economic Geology, 88, 1615–1635.10.2113/gsecongeo.88.6.1615Search in Google Scholar

Shackleton, R.M. (1994) Review of late Proterozoic sutures, ophiolitic mélanges and tectonics of eastern Egypt and north Sudan. Geological Rundschau, 83, 537–546.10.1007/BF01083226Search in Google Scholar

Shukri, N.M., and Lotfi, M. (1959) The Geology of the Bir Barramiya area. Bulletin of Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 34, 83–130.Search in Google Scholar

Singh, A.K., and Singh, R.B. (2013) Genetic implications of Zn- and Mn-rich Cr-spinels in serpentinites of the Tidding Suture Zone, eastern Himalaya, NE India. Geological Journal, 48, 22–38.10.1002/gj.2428Search in Google Scholar

Sobolev, N.V., and Logvinova, A.M. (2005) Significance of accessory chrome spinels in identifying serpentinite paragenesis. International Geological Review, 47, 58–64.10.2747/0020-6814.47.1.58Search in Google Scholar

Sofiya, A., Ishiwatari, A., Hirano, N., and Tsujimori, T. (2017) Relict chromian spinels in Tulu Dimtu serpentinites and listvenite, Western Ethiopia: implications for the timing of listvenite formation. International Geology Review, 59, 1621–1631.10.1080/00206814.2016.1213142Search in Google Scholar

Spiridonov, E.M. (1991) Listvenites and zodites. International Geology Review, 33, 397–407.10.1080/00206819109465698Search in Google Scholar

Stern, R.J. (1994) Arc assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, 22, 319–351.10.1146/annurev.ea.22.050194.001535Search in Google Scholar

Stern, R.J. (2002) Crustal evolution in the East African Orogen: a neodymium isotopic perspective. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34, 109–117.10.1016/S0899-5362(02)00012-XSearch in Google Scholar

Stern, R.J., and Gwinn, C.J. (1990) Origin of Late Precambrian Intrusive Carbonates, Eastern Desert of Egypt and Sudan: C, O, and Sr isotopic evidence. Precambrian Research, 46, 259–272.10.1016/0301-9268(90)90005-BSearch in Google Scholar

Stern, R.J., and Hedge, C.E. (1985) Geochronologic constraints on late Precambrian crustal evolution in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. American Journal of Science, 285, 319–351.10.2475/ajs.285.2.97Search in Google Scholar

Stern, R.J., Johnson, P.R., Kröner, A., and Yibas, B. (2004) Neoproterozoic ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In T.M. Kusky, Ed., Developments in Precambrian Geology, 13, 95–128. Elsevier.10.1016/S0166-2635(04)13003-XSearch in Google Scholar

Stoeser, D.B., and Frost, C.D. (2006) Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes. Chemical Geology, 226, 163–188.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.09.019Search in Google Scholar

Takahashi, E., Uto, K., and Schilling, J.G. (1987) Primary magma compositions and Mg/Fe ratios of their mantle residues along mid-Atlantic ridge 29N to 73N Technical Report, A9. Institute of Studies Earth’s Interior, Okayama University Series, pp.1–14.Search in Google Scholar

Uçurum, A. (2000) Listwaenites in Turkey: Perspectives on formation and precious metal concentration with reference to occurrences in East-Central Anatolia. Ofioliti, 25, 15–29.Search in Google Scholar

Uçurum, A., and Larson, L.T. (1999) Geology, base precious metal concentration and genesis of the silica-carbonate alteration (listwaenites) from Late Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges at Cürek-Divriği in Sivas province and at Güvenç, Karakuz Hekimhan in Malatya province, Central East Turkey. Chemie der Erde Geochemistry, 59, 77–104.Search in Google Scholar

Uysal, I., Yalçin Ersoy, E., Karsli, O., Dilek, Y., Burhan Sadiklar, M., Ottley, C.J., Tiepolo, M., and Meisel, T. (2012) Coexistence of abyssal and ultra-depleted SSZ type mantle peridotites in a Neo-Tethyan Ophiolite in SW Turkey: Constraints from mineral composition, whole-rock geochemistry (major-trace-REE-PGE), and Re-Os isotope systematics. Lithos, 132-133, 50–69.10.1016/j.lithos.2011.11.009Search in Google Scholar

Weir, R.H., and Kerrick, D.M. (1987) Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope studies of several gold-mines in the Mother Lode, Tuolumne and Mariposa Counties, California. Economic Geology, 82, 328–344.10.2113/gsecongeo.82.2.328Search in Google Scholar

Wilde, A., Simpson, L., and Hanna, S. (2002) Preliminary study of Cenozoic alteration and platinum deposition in the Oman ophiolite. Journal of the Virtual Explorer, 6, 7–13.10.3809/jvirtex.2002.00038Search in Google Scholar

Yavuz, F., Kumral, M., Karakaya, N., Karakaya, M.C., and Yildirim, D.K. (2015) A Windows program for chlorite calculation and classification. Computers and Geosciences, 81, 101–113.10.1016/j.cageo.2015.04.011Search in Google Scholar

Zedef, V., Russell, M.J., Fallick, A.E., and Hall, A.J. (2000) Genesis of vein stockwork and sedimentary magnesite and hydromagnesite deposits in the ultramafic terrains of southwestern Turkey: a stable isotope study. Economic Geology, 95, 429–446.10.2113/gsecongeo.95.2.429Search in Google Scholar

Zhou, M.F., Robinson, P.T., Malpas, J., and Zijin, L. (1996) Podiform chromite in the Luobusa ophiolite (Southern Tibet): implication for melt rock interaction and chromite segregation in the upper mantle. Journal of Petrology, 37, 3–21.10.1093/petrology/37.1.3Search in Google Scholar

Zimmer, M., Kröner, A., Jochum, K.P., Reischmann, T., and Todt, W. (1995) The Gabal Gerf complex: a Precambrian N-MORB ophiolite in the Nubian Shield, NE Africa. Chemical Geology, 123, 29–51.10.1016/0009-2541(95)00018-HSearch in Google Scholar

Zoheir, B. (2011) Transpressional zones in ophiolitic mélange terranes: Potential exploration targets for gold in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 111, 23–38.10.1016/j.gexplo.2011.07.003Search in Google Scholar

Zoheir, B.A., and Lehmann, B. (2011) Listvenite-lode association at the Barramiya gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews, 39, 101–115.10.1016/j.oregeorev.2010.12.002Search in Google Scholar

Zoheir, B., and Moritz, R. (2014) Fluid evolution in the El-Sid gold deposit, Eastern Desert, Egypt. In P.S. Garofalo and Ridley, J.R., Eds., Gold-transporting Hydrothermal Fluids in the Earth’s Crust. London, Geological Society, Special Publications, 402 p.10.1144/SP402.3Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-01-15
Accepted: 2018-03-28
Published Online: 2018-07-02
Published in Print: 2018-07-26

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 28.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow