Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 28, 2019

Goldschmidtite, (K,REE,Sr)(Nb,Cr)O3: A new perovskite supergroup mineral found in diamond from Koffiefontein, South Africa

Nicole A. Meyer, Michelle D. Wenz, James P.S. Walsh, Steven D. Jacobsen, Andrew J. Locock and Jeffrey W. Harris
From the journal American Mineralogist


Goldschmidtite is a new perovskite-group mineral (IMA No. 2018-034) with the ideal formula (K,REE,Sr)(Nb,Cr)O3. A single grain of goldschmidtite with a maximum dimension of ∼100 μm was found as an inclusion in a diamond from the Koffiefontein pipe in South Africa. In addition to the dark green and opaque goldschmidtite, the diamond contained a Cr-rich augite (websteritic paragenesis) and an intergrowth of chromite, Mg-silicate, and unidentified K-Sr-REE-Nb-oxide. Geothermobarometry of the augite indicates that the depth of formation was ∼170 km. The chemical composition of gold-schmidtite determined by electron microprobe analysis (n = 11, WDS, wt%) is: Nb2O5 44.82, TiO2 0.44, ThO2 0.10, Al2O3 0.35, Cr2O3 7.07, La2O3 11.85, Ce2O3 6.18, Fe2O3 1.96, MgO 0.70, CaO 0.04, SrO 6.67, BaO 6.82, K2O 11.53, total 98.53. The empirical formula (expressed to two decimal places) is (K0.50La0.15Sr0.13Ba0.09Ce0.08)Σ0.95(Nb0.70Cr0.19Fe0.05Al0.01Mg0.04Ti0.01)Σ1.00O3. Goldschmidtite is cubic, space group Pm3m, with unit-cell parameters: a = 3.9876(1) Å, V = 63.404(6) Å3, Z = 1, resulting in a calculated density of 5.32(3) g/cm3. Goldschmidtite is the K-analog of isolueshite, (Na,La)NbO3. Raman spectra of goldschmidtite exhibit many second-order broad bands at 100 to 700 cm–1 as well as a pronounced peak at 815 cm–1, which is possibly a result of local ordering of Nb and Cr at the B site. The name goldschmidtite is in honor of the eminent geochemist Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (1888–1947), who formalized perovskite crystal chemistry and identified KNbO3 as a perovskite-structured compound.

Orcid 0000-0002-8801-6554

Acknowledgments and Funding

The authors thank T. Stachel and D.G. Pearson for their comments and suggestions, which improved the quality of the manuscript. This research was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa, grant 94626 (N.A. Meyer) and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Discovery Grant (T. Stachel). S.D. Jacobsen acknowledges support from U.S. National Science Foundation, grant EAR-1853521. J.W.H. thanks the Diamond Trading Company (a member of the DeBeers Group of Companies) for the donation of the diamond used in this study.

References cited

Allègre, C.J., Poirier, J., Humler, E., and Hofmann, A.W. (1995) The chemical composition of the Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 134, 515–526. Search in Google Scholar

Angel, R.J., and Finger, L.W. (2011) SINGLE: a program to control single-crystal diffractometers. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 44, 247–251. Search in Google Scholar

Armstrong, J.T. (1995) CITZAF: A package of correction programs for the quantitative electron microbeam X-ray-analysis of thick polished materials, thin-films, and particles. Microbeam Analysis, 4, 177–200. Search in Google Scholar

Barkov, A.Y., Martin, R.F., Men’shikov, Y.P., Savchenko, Y.E., Thibault, Y., and Laajoki, K.V.O. (2000) Edgarite, FeNb3S6 first natural niobium-rich sulfide from the Khibina alkaline complex, Russian Far North: evidence for chalcophile behavior of Nb in a fenite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 138, 229–236. Search in Google Scholar

Barth, T. (1925) Die Kristallstruktur von Perowskit und Verwandten Verbindungen. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 8, 201–216 (in German). Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, O.C.A. (1962) Victor Moritz Goldschmidt 1888–1947. In P.P. Ewald, Ed., Fifty Years of X-ray Diffraction, p. 364–365. Springer. Search in Google Scholar

Bindi, L., and Martin, R.F. (2018) Edgarite, FeNb3S6 from the Khibina alkaline complex, Russia: solution of the crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 56, 259–264. Search in Google Scholar

Chakhmouradian, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Mitchell, R.H., and Bogdanova, A. (1997) Isolueshite: a new mineral of the perovskite group from the Khibina alkaline complex. European Journal of Mineralogy, 9, 483–490. Search in Google Scholar

Chantler, C.T., Olsen, K., Dragoset, R.A., Chang, J., Kishore, A.R., Kotochigova, S.A., and Zucker, D.S. (2005) X-ray form factor, attenuation and scattering tables, NIST Standard Reference Database 66 (ver. 2.1). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. [2018, August 22]. Search in Google Scholar

Clement, C.R. (1982) A comparative geological study of some major kimberlite pipes in the Northern Cape and Orange Free State. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Town. Search in Google Scholar

Davis, G.L. (1978) Zircons from the mantle. Short papers of the Fourth International Conference, Geochronology, Cosmochronology, Isotope Geology. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 78, 86–88. Search in Google Scholar

Dawson, J.B. (1982) Contrasting types of mantle metasomatism. In International Kimberlite Conference: Extended Abstracts, vol. 3, 232–233. Search in Google Scholar

Donovan, J.J., Lowers, H.A., and Rusk, B.G. (2011) Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz. American Mineralogist, 96, 274–282. Search in Google Scholar

Donovan, J.J., Kremser, D., Fournelle, J.H., and Goemann, K. (2015) Probe for EPMA: Acquisition, automation and analysis, ver. 11: Eugene, Oregon, Probe Software, Inc. Search in Google Scholar

Erlank, A.J., and Rickard, R.S. (1977) Potassic richterite bearing peridotites from kimberlite and the evidence they provide for upper mantle metasomatism. In International Kimberlite Conference: Extended Abstracts, vol. 2, 93–95. Search in Google Scholar

Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008) Kimberlite-hosted diamond deposits of southern Africa: A review. Ore Geology Reviews, 34, 33–75. Search in Google Scholar

Goldschmidt, V.M. (1926) Geochemische Verteilungsgesetze Der Elemente VII. Die Gesetze der Krystallochemie nach Untersuchungen gemeinsam mit T. Barth, G. Lunde, W. Zacharisasen. Skrifter utgitt av det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo 1: Matematisk-Naturvidenskapelig Klasse, 1–117 (in German). Search in Google Scholar

Gurney, J.J., Harris, J.W., and Rickard, R.S. (1984) Silicate and oxide inclusions in diamonds from the Orapa Mine, Botswana. In J. Kornprobst, Ed., Kimberlites: II: The Mantle and Crust-Mantle Relationships, 11, 3–9. Developments in Petrology, Elsevier. Search in Google Scholar

Haggerty, S.E. (1983) The mineral chemistry of new titanates from the Jagersfontein kimberlite, South Africa: implications for metasomatism in the upper mantle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 47, 1833–1854. Search in Google Scholar

Harris, J.W., and Gurney, J.J. (1979) Inclusions in Diamond. In J.E. Field, Ed., The Properties of Diamond, pp. 555–591. Academic Press London, London. Search in Google Scholar

Harte, B., Harris, J.W., Hutchison, M.T., Watt, G.R., and Wilding, M.C. (1999) Lower mantle mineral associations in diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil. In Y. Fei, C.M. Bertka, and B.O. Mysen, Eds., Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High-Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd. Geochemical Society Special Publication, 6, 125–153. Search in Google Scholar

Helmstaedt, H.H., Gurney, J.J., and Richardson, S.H. (2010) Ages of cratonic diamond and lithosphere evolution: Constraints on Precambrian tectonics and diamond exploration. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 1385–1408. Search in Google Scholar

Hobbs, W.H. (1899) Goldschmidtite, a new mineral. American Journal of Science, 357–364. Search in Google Scholar

Hofmann, A.W. (1988) Chemical differentiation of the Earth: the relationship between mantle, continental crust, and oceanic crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 90, 297–314. Search in Google Scholar

Holmquist, P.J. (1896) Synthetische Studien über die Perowskit- und Pyrochlormineralien. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Upsala, 3, 181–268 (in German). Search in Google Scholar

Joly, A. (1877) Recherches sur les composés du niobium et du tantale. Annales Scientifiques de L’École normal Supérieure, 6, 125–186 (in French). Search in Google Scholar

Kakimoto, K.-I., Masuda, I., and Ohsato, H. (2003) Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of KNbO3 ceramics containing small amounts of LaFeO3 Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 42, 6102–6105. Search in Google Scholar

Kauffman, G.B. (1997) Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (1888–1947): A tribute to the founder of modern geochemistry on the fiftieth anniversary of his death. The Chemical Educator, 2, 1–26. Search in Google Scholar

King, H.E., and Finger, L.W. (1979) Diffracted beam crystal centering and its application to high-pressure crystallography. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 12, 374–378. Search in Google Scholar

Kiseeva, E.S., Wood, B.J., Ghosh, S., and Stachel, T. (2016) The pyroxenite-diamond connection. Geochemical Perspectives Letters, 2, 1–9. Search in Google Scholar

Kopylova, M.G., Gurney, J.J., and Daniels, L.R.M. (1997) Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch kimberlite, Zimbabwe. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 129, 366–384. Search in Google Scholar

Kraus, W., and Nolze, G. (1996) POWDER CELL—a program for the representation and manipulation of crystal structures and calculation of the resulting X-ray powder patterns. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 29, 301–303. Search in Google Scholar

Krivovichev, S.V., Chakhmouradian, A.R., Mitchell, R.H., Filatov, S.K., and Chukanov, N.V. (2000) Crystal structure of isolueshite and its synthetic compositional analogue. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12, 597–607. Search in Google Scholar

Laves, F. (1962) The growing field of mineral structures. In P.P. Ewald, Ed., Fifty Years of X-ray Diffraction, pp. 174–189. Springer. Search in Google Scholar

Lummen, T.T.A., Leung, J., Kumar, A., Wu, X., Ren, Y., VanLeeuwen, B.K., Haislmaier, R.C., Holt, M., Lai, K., Kalinin, S.V., and Gopalan, V. (2017) Emergent low-symmetry phases and large property enhancements in ferroelectric KNbO3 bulk crystals. Advanced Materials, 29, 1, 700530, 1–7. Search in Google Scholar

Mandarino, J.A. (1976) The Gladstone-Dale relationship—Part I: Derivation of new constants. Canadian Mineralogist, 14, 498–502. Search in Google Scholar

Mason, B.H. (1992) Victor Moritz Goldschmidt: Father of Modern Geochemistry, 184 p. Geochemical Society, Special Publication No. 4, San Antonio. Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, H.O.A. (1987) Inclusions in diamond. In P.H. Nixon, Ed., Mantle Xenoliths, pp. 501–522. Wiley. Search in Google Scholar

Mitchell, R.H., Choi, J.B., Hawthorne, F.C., and Burns, P.C. (1998) Latrappite: A re-investigation. Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 107–116. Search in Google Scholar

Mitchell, R.H., Welch, M.D., and Chakhmouradian, A.R. (2017) Nomenclature of the perovskite supergroup: A hierarchical system of classification based on crystal structure and composition. Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 411–461. Search in Google Scholar

Naidoo, P., Stiefenhofer, J., Field, M., and Dobbe, R. (2004) Recent advances in the geology of Koffiefontein Mine, Free State Province, South Africa. Lithos, 76, 161–182. Search in Google Scholar

Nestola, F., Korolev, N., Kopylova, M., Rotiroti, N., Pearson, D.G., Pamato, M.G., Alvaro, M., Peruzzo, L., Gurney, J.J., Moore, A.E., and Davidson, J. (2018) CaSiO3 perovskite in diamond indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into the lower mantle. Nature, 555, 237–241. Search in Google Scholar

Nilsen, W.G., and Skinner, J.G. (1968) Raman spectrum of strontium titanate. Journal of Chemical Physics, 48, 2240–2248. Search in Google Scholar

Nimis, P., and Taylor, W.R. (2000) Single clinopyroxene thermobarometry for garnet peridotites. Part I. Calibration and testing of a Cr-in-Cpx barometer and an enstatite-in-Cpx thermometer. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 139, 541–554. Search in Google Scholar

Palache, C. (1900) Notes on tellurides from Colorado. American Journal of Science, 419–427. Search in Google Scholar

Palot, M., Jacobsen, S.D., Townsend, J.P., Nestola, F., Marquardt, K., Miyajima, N., Harris, J.W., Stachel, T., McCammon, C.A., and Pearson, D.G. (2016) Evidence for H2O-bearing fluids in the lower mantle from diamond inclusion. Lithos, 265, 237–243. Search in Google Scholar

Peacock, M.A. (1939) Goldschmidtine, a newly recognized antimonide of silver. American Mineralogist, 24, 227–241. Search in Google Scholar

Peacock, M.A. (1940) Goldschmidtine identical with stephanite. American Mineralogist, 25, 372–373. Search in Google Scholar

Pearson, D.G., Brenker, F.E., Nestola, F., McNeill, J., Nasdala, L., Hutchison, M.T., Matveev, S., Mather, K.A., Silversmit, G., Schmitz, S., and others (2014) Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond. Nature, 507, 221–224. Search in Google Scholar

Rickard, R. S., Harris, J.W., Gurney, J.J., and Cardoso, P. (1989) Mineral inclusions in diamonds from Koffiefontein Mine. In Kimberlites and Related Rocks, 2, 1054–1062. Search in Google Scholar

Schaufele, R.F., and Weber, M. J. (1967) First- and second-order Raman scattering of SrTiO3 The Journal of Chemical Physics, 46, 2859–2861. Search in Google Scholar

Skjærvø, S.L., Høydalsvik, K., Blichfeld, A.B., Einarsrud, M.-A., and Grande, T. (2018) Thermal evolution of the crystal structure and phase transitions of KNbO3 Royal Society Open Science, 5, 180368, 1–5. Search in Google Scholar

Suess, H.E. (1988) V.M Goldschmidt and the origin of the elements. Applied Geochemistry, 3, 385–391. Search in Google Scholar

Tilley, C.E. (1948) Victor Moritz Goldschmidt. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 6, 51–66. Search in Google Scholar

Tschauner, O., Ma, C., Beckett, J.R., Prescher, C., Prakapenka, V.B., and Rossman, G.R. (2014) Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite. Science, 346, 1100–1102. Search in Google Scholar

Tschauner, O., Huang, S., Greenberg, E., Prakapenka, V.B., Ma, C., Rossman, G.R., Shen, A.H., Zhang, D., Newville, M., Lanzirotti, A., and others (2018) Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle. Science, 359, 1136–1139. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, H., Csete de Györgyfalva, G.D.C., Quimby, R., Bagshaw, H., Ubic, R., Reaney, I.M., and Yarwood, J. (2003) Raman spectroscopy of B-site order-disorder in CaTiO3-based microwave ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 23, 2653–2659. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, H., Reaney, I.M., Csete de Györgyfalva, G.D.C., Ubic, R., Yarwood, J. Seabra, M.P., and Ferreira, V.M. (2004) Raman spectroscopy of CaTiO3-based perovskite. Journal of Materials Research, 19, 448–495. DOI: Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-12-21
Accepted: 2019-06-08
Published Online: 2019-08-28
Published in Print: 2019-09-25

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston