Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 20, 2020

Structure of NaFeSiO4, NaFeSi2O6, and NaFeSi3O8 glasses and glass-ceramics

Mostafa Ahmadzadeh ORCID logo , Alex Scrimshire , Lucy Mottram , Martin C. Stennett , Neil C. Hyatt , Paul A. Bingham and John S. McCloy
From the journal American Mineralogist

Abstract

The crystallization of iron-containing sodium silicate phases holds particular importance, both in the management of high-level nuclear wastes and in geosciences. Here, we study three as-quenched glasses and their heat-treated chemical analogs, NaFeSiO4, NaFeSi2O6, and NaFeSi3O8 (with nominal stoichiometries from feldspathoid, pyroxene, and feldspar mineral groups, i.e., Si/Fe = 1, 2, and 3, respectively) using various techniques. Phase analyses revealed that as-quenched NaFeSiO4 could not accommodate all Fe in the glass phase (some Fe crystallizes as Fe3O4), whereas as-quenched NaFeSi2O6 and NaFeSi3O8 form amorphous glasses. NaFeSi2O6 glass is the only composition that crystallizes into its respective isochemical crystalline polymorph, i.e., aegirine, upon isothermal heat-treatment. As revealed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, iron is predominantly present as fourfold-coordinated Fe3+ in all glasses, though it is present as sixfold-coordinated Fe3+ in the aegirine crystals (NaFeSi2O6), as expected from crystallography. Thus, Na-Fe silicate can form a crystalline phase in which it is octahedrally coordinated, even though it is mostly tetrahedrally coordinated in the parent glasses. Thermal behavior, magnetic properties, iron redox state (including Fe K-edge X‑ray absorption), and vibrational properties (Raman spectra) of the above compositions are discussed.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Daniel Neuville from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP) for help with Raman spectroscopy measurements and interpretation.

  1. Funding

    This research was supported by the Department of Energy Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Federal Project Office, contract numbers DE-EM002904 and 89304017CEM000001, under the direction of Albert A. Kruger. A portion of this research used 6-BM of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLSII), a U.S. DOE OS user facility operated for the DOE OS by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract DE-SC0012704. This work was, in part, performed in the HADES/MIDAS facility at the University of Sheffield, established with financial support of the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under grant EP/T011424/1 (Hyatt et al. 2020). The U.K. portion of the research was sponsored, in part, by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under grants EP/N017870/1 and EP/S01019X/1.

References cited

Ahmadzadeh, M., Marcial, J., and McCloy, J. (2017) Crystallization of iron-containing sodium aluminosilicate glasses in the NaAlSiO4-NaFeSiO4 join. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122, 2504–2524.10.1002/2016JB013661Search in Google Scholar

Ahmadzadeh, M., Olds, T.A., Scrimshire, A., Bingham, P.A., and McCloy, J.S. (2018) Structure and properties of Na5FeSi4O12 crystallized from 5Na2O-Fe2O3-8SiO2 glass. Acta Crystallographica, C74, 1595–1602.10.1107/S2053229618014353Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Baert, K., Meulebroeck, W., Wouters, H., Cosyns, P., Nys, K., Thienpont, H., and Terryn, H. (2011) Using Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the detection of iron in glass. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 42, 1789–1795.10.1002/jrs.2935Search in Google Scholar

Bailey, D.K., and Schairer, J.F. (1963) Crystallization of the rock-forming silicates in the system Na2O-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 at 1 atmosphere. Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book, 62, 124–131.Search in Google Scholar

Bailey, D.K., and Schairer, J.F. (1966) The system Na2O-Al2O3-Fe2O3-SiO2 at 1 atmosphere, and the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. Journal of Petrology, 7, 114–170.10.1093/petrology/7.1.114Search in Google Scholar

Baum, E., Treutmann, W., Behruzi, M., Lottermoser, W., and Amthauer, G. (1988) Structural and magnetic properties of the clinopyroxenes NaFeSi2O6 and LiFeSi2O6 Zeitschrift für Kristallographie—Crystalline Materials, 183, 273.10.1524/zkri.1988.183.14.273Search in Google Scholar

Bell, A.M.T., and Henderson, C.M.B. (1994) Rietveld refinement of the structures of dry-synthesized MFeIIISi2O6 leucites M = K, Rb, Cs) by synchrotron X‑ray powder diffraction. Acta Crystallographica, C50, 1531–1536.10.1107/S0108270194004014Search in Google Scholar

Bentzen, J.J. (1983) Three crystalline polymorphs of KFeSiO4 potassium ferrisilicate. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 66, 475–479.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1983.tb10584.xSearch in Google Scholar

Bingham, P.A., Hannant, O.M., Reeves-McLaren, N., Stennett, M.C., and Hand, R.J. (2014) Selective behaviour of dilute Fe3+ ions in silicate glasses: an Fe K-edge EXAFS and XANES study. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 387, 47–56.10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2013.12.034Search in Google Scholar

Bowen, N.L., Schairer, J.F., and Willems, H.W.V. (1930) The ternary system; Na2SiO3-Fe2O3-SiO2 American Journal of Science, 20, 405–455.10.2475/ajs.s5-20.120.405Search in Google Scholar

Bychkov, A.M., Borisov, A., Khramov, D.A., and Urusov, V. (1993) Change in the immediate environment of Fe atoms during the melting of minerals (review). Geochemistry International, 30, 1–25.Search in Google Scholar

Cameron, M., Sueno, S., Prewitt, C., and Papike, J. (1973) High-temperature crystal chemistry of acmite, diopside, hedenbergite, jadeite, spodumene, and ureyite. American Mineralogist, 58, 594–618.Search in Google Scholar

Clark, J.R., Appleman, D.E., and Papike, J.J. (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. Mineralogical Society of America Special paper, 2, 31–50.Search in Google Scholar

Cochain, B., Neuville, D.R., Richet, P., Henderson, G.S., and Pinet, O. (2008) Determination of iron redox ratio in borosilicate glasses and melts from Raman spectra. Atalante 2008: Nuclear fuel cycle for a sustainable future, p. O4-11, France.10.1557/PROC-1124-Q03-02Search in Google Scholar

Cochain, B., Neuville, D.R., Henderson, G.S., McCammon, C.A., Pinet, O., and Richet, P. (2012) Effects of the Iron Content and Redox State on the Structure of Sodium Borosilicate Glasses: A Raman, Mössbauer and Boron K-edge XANES Spectroscopy Study. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 95, 962–971.10.1111/j.1551-2916.2011.05020.xSearch in Google Scholar

Cottrell, E., Kelley, K.A., Lanzirotti, A., and Fischer, R.A. (2009) High-precision determination of iron oxidation state in silicate glasses using XANES. Chemical Geology, 268, 167–179.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.08.008Search in Google Scholar

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., and Zussman, J. (1992) An Introduction to Rock-Forming Minerals. Longman.Search in Google Scholar

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Wise, W.S., and Zussman, J. (2004) Rock-Forming Minerals: Framework Silicates: Silica Minerals, Feldspathoids and the Zeolites. The Geological Society, London.Search in Google Scholar

Deshkar, A., Ahmadzadeh, M., Scrimshire, A., Han, E., Bingham, P.A., Guillen, D., McCloy, J., and Goel, A. (2019) Crystallization behavior of iron- and boron-containing nepheline (Na2O·Al2O3·2SiO2 based model high-level nuclear waste glasses. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 102, 1101–1121.10.1111/jace.15936Search in Google Scholar

Di Genova, D., Vasseur, J., Hess, K.-U., Neuville, D.R., and Dingwell, D.B. (2017) Effect of oxygen fugacity on the glass transition, viscosity and structure of silica- and iron-rich magmatic melts. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 470, 78–85.10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2017.05.013Search in Google Scholar

Di Muro, A., Métrich, N., Mercier, M., Giordano, D., Massare, D., and Montagnac, G. (2009) Micro-Raman determination of iron redox state in dry natural glasses: Application to peralkaline rhyolites and basalts. Chemical Geology, 259, 78–88.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.08.013Search in Google Scholar

Dyar, M.D. (1985) A review of MÖssbauer data on inorganic glasses; the effects of composition on iron valency and coordination. American Mineralogist, 70, 304–316.Search in Google Scholar

Dyar, M.D., Agresti, D.G., Schaefer, M.W., Grant, C.A., and Sklute, E.C. (2006) Mössbauer spectroscopy of Earth and planetary materials. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 34, 83–125.10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125049Search in Google Scholar

Farges, F., Lefrère, Y., Rossano, S., Berthereau, A., Calas, G., and Brown, G.E. Jr. (2004) The effect of redox state on the local structural environment of iron in silicate glasses: a combined XAFS spectroscopy, molecular dynamics, and bond valence study. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 344, 176–188.10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2004.07.050Search in Google Scholar

Farges, F., Rossano, S., Lefrère, Y., Wilke, M., and G. E. Brown, J. (2005) Iron in silicate glasses: a systematic analysis of pre-edge, XANES and EXAFS features. Physica Scripta, 2005, 957.10.1238/Physica.Topical.115a00957Search in Google Scholar

Faust, G.T. (1936) The fusion relations of iron-orthoclase. American Mineralogist, 21, 735–763.Search in Google Scholar

Fiege, A., Ruprecht, P., Simon, A.C., Bell, A.S., Göttlicher, J., Newville, M., Lanzirotti, T., and Moore, G. (2017) Calibration of Fe XANES for high-precision determination of Fe oxidation state in glasses: Comparison of new and existing results obtained at different synchrotron radiation sources. American Mineralogist, 102, 369–380.10.2138/am-2017-5822Search in Google Scholar

Fleet, M.E., Herzberg, C.T., Henderson, G.S., Crozier, E.D., Osborne, M.D., and Scarfe, C.M. (1984) Coordination of Fe, Ga and Ge in high pressure glasses by Mössbauer, Raman and X‑ray absorption spectroscopy, and geological implications. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 1455–1466.10.1016/0016-7037(84)90402-2Search in Google Scholar

Forder, S.D., Bingham, P.A., McGann, O.J., Stennett, M.C., and Hyatt, N.C. (2013) Mössbauer studies of materials used to immobilise industrial wastes. Hyperfine Interactions, 217, 83–90.10.1007/978-94-007-6491-0_11Search in Google Scholar

Galoisy, L., Calas, G., and Arrio, M.A. (2001) High-resolution XANES spectra of iron in minerals and glasses: structural information from the pre-edge region. Chemical Geology, 174, 307–319.10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00322-3Search in Google Scholar

Henderson, G.S., Fleet, M.E., and Bancroft, G.M. (1984) An X‑ray scattering study of vitreous KFeSi3O8 and NaFeSi3O8 and reinvestigation of vitreous SiO2 using quasi-crystalline modelling. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 68, 333–349.10.1016/0022-3093(84)90015-2Search in Google Scholar

Honma, T., Togashi, T., and Komatsu, T. (2012) Spinel-type crystals based on LiFeSiO4 with high electrical conductivity for lithium ion battery formed by melt-quenching method. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 120, 93–97.10.2109/jcersj2.120.93Search in Google Scholar

Hrma, P.R., Vienna, J.D., Mika, M., Crum, J.V., and Piepel, G.F. (1999) Liquidus temperature data for DWPF glass, 72 pages. PNNL-11790, Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, Washington.10.2172/6833Search in Google Scholar

Hyatt, N.C., Corkhill, C.L., Stennett, M.C., Hand, R.J., Gardner, L.J., and Thorpe, C.L. (2020) The HADES facility for high activity decommissioning engineering and science: part of the UK national nuclear user facility. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 818, 012022.10.1088/1757-899X/818/1/012022Search in Google Scholar

Jackson, W.E., Farges, F., Yeager, M., Mabrouk, P.A., Rossano, S., Waychunas, G.A., Solomon, E.I., and Brown, G.E. Jr. (2005) Multi-spectroscopic study of Fe(II) in silicate glasses: Implications for the coordination environment of Fe(II) in silicate melts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 4315–4332.10.1016/j.gca.2005.01.008Search in Google Scholar

Jantzen, C.M. (2011) Development of glass matrices for high level radioactive wastes. In M.I. Ojovan, Ed., Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies, p. 230–292. Woodhead Publishing.10.1533/9780857090959.2.230Search in Google Scholar

Jantzen, C.M., and Bickford, D.F. (1984) Leaching of devitrified glass containing simulated SRP nuclear waste. MRS Proceedings, 44, 135.10.1557/PROC-44-135Search in Google Scholar

Jantzen, C.M., and Brown, K.G. (2007) Predicting the spinel–nepheline liquidus for application to nuclear waste glass processing. Part II: quasicrystalline freezing point depression model. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 90, 1880–1891.10.1111/j.1551-2916.2006.01028.xSearch in Google Scholar

Jantzen, C., and Edwards, T. (2015) Product/process (P/P) models for the defense waste processing facility (DWPF): Model ranges and validation ranges for future processing. SRNL-STI-2014-00320, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina.10.2172/1223202Search in Google Scholar

Jantzen, C.M., Bickford, D.F., and Karraker, D.G. (1984) Time-temperature-transformation [TTT] kinetics in SRL Waste Glass. In G.G. Wicks and W.A. Ross, Eds., Advances in Ceramics 85, p. 30–38. American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio.Search in Google Scholar

Jantzen, C.M., Brown, K.G., and Pickett, J.B. (2010) Durable glass for thousands of years. International Journal of Applied Glass Science, 1, 38–62.10.1111/j.2041-1294.2010.00007.xSearch in Google Scholar

Jayasuriya, K.D., O’Neill, H.St.C., Berry, A.J., and Campbell, S.J. (2004) A Mössbauer study of the oxidation state of Fe in silicate melts. American Mineralogist, 89, 1597–1609.10.2138/am-2004-11-1203Search in Google Scholar

Jeoung, J.-S., Poisl, W.H., Weinberg, M.C., Smith, G.L., and Li, H. (2001) Effect of oxidation state of iron on phase separation in sodium silicate glasses. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 84, 1859–1864.10.1111/j.1151-2916.2001.tb00927.xSearch in Google Scholar

Kim, D.S., Hrma, P., Smith, D.E., and Schweiger, M.J. (1994) Crystallization in simulated glasses from hanford high-level nuclear waste composition range. Ceramic Transactions, 39, 179–189.Search in Google Scholar

Kim, D.S., Schweiger, M.J., Rodriguez, C.P., Lepry, W.C., Lang, J.B., Crum, J.D., Vienna, J.D., Johnson, F.C., Marra, J.C., and Peeler, D.K. (2011) Formulation and characterization of waste glasses with varying processing temperature. PNNL-20774, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.10.2172/1028572Search in Google Scholar

Komatsu, T., and Soga, N. (1980) ESR and Mössbauer studies of crystallization process of sodium iron silicate glass. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 72, 1781–1785.10.1063/1.439293Search in Google Scholar

Kruger, A.A., Pegg, I.L., Chaudhuri, M., Gong, W., Gan, H., Matlack, K.S., Bardakci, T., and Kot, W. (2013) Final report—melt rate enhancement for high aluminum HLW glass formulation. VSL-08R1360-1, Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, Washington.10.2172/1105973Search in Google Scholar

Lange, R.A., Carmichael, I.S.E., and Stebbins, J.F. (1986) Phase transitions in leucite (KAlSi2O6 orthorhombic KAlSiO4 and their iron analogues (KFeSi2O6 KFeSiO4 American Mineralogist, 71, 937–945.Search in Google Scholar

Larsen, L.M. (1976) Clinopyroxenes and coexisting mafic minerals from the alkaline Ilímaussaq Intrusion, South Greenland. Journal of Petrology, 17, 258–290.10.1093/petrology/17.2.258Search in Google Scholar

Lebedeva, Y.S., Pushcharovsky, D.Y., Pasero, M., Merlino, S., Kashaev, A.A., Taroev, V.K., Goettlicher, J., Kroll, H., Pentinghaus, H., Suvorova, L.F., and others. (2003) Synthesis and crystal structure of low ferrialuminosilicate sanidine. Crystallography Reports, 48, 919–924.10.1134/1.1627432Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Q., and Lange, R.A. (2006) The partial molar volume of Fe2O3 in alkali silicate melts: Evidence for an average Fe3+ coordination number near five. American Mineralogist, 91, 385–393.10.2138/am.2006.1902Search in Google Scholar

Long, D.A. (1977) Raman Spectroscopy. McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

Lottermoser, W., Redhammer, G., Forcher, K., Amthauer, G., Paulus, W., André, G., and Treutmann, W. (1998) Single crystal Mössbauer and neutron powder diffraction measurements on the synthetic clinopyroxene Li-acmite LiFeSi2O6 Zeitschrift für Kristallographie—Crystalline Materials, 213, 101–107.10.1524/zkri.1998.213.2.101Search in Google Scholar

Luo, Y.-R., and Kerr, J.A. (2006) Bond dissociation energies. In D.R. Lide, Ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, p. 9-54–9-59. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, Florida.Search in Google Scholar

Magnien, V., Neuville, D.R., Cormier, L., Roux, J., Hazemann, J.L., Pinet, O., and Richet, P. (2006) Kinetics of iron redox reactions in silicate liquids: A high-temperature X‑ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy study. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 352, 190–195.10.1016/j.jnucmat.2006.02.053Search in Google Scholar

Marcial, J., and McCloy, J. (2019) Role of short range order on crystallization of tectosilicate glasses: A diffraction study. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 505, 131–143.10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2018.10.050Search in Google Scholar

Marcial, J., Ahmadzadeh, M., and McCloy, J.S. (2016) Effect of Li, Fe, and B addition on the crystallization behavior of sodium aluminosilicate glasses as analogues for hanford high level waste glasses. MRS Advances, 2, 549–555.10.1557/adv.2016.628Search in Google Scholar

Montiel-Anaya, J.A., and Franco, V. (2019) FORC study of the ferromagnetic impurities in Na and K feldspars of “El Realejo” mine. AIP Advances, 9, 035038.10.1063/1.5080081Search in Google Scholar

Mysen, B.O., and Richet, P. (2005) Silicate Glasses and Melts: Properties and Structure. Elsevier.Search in Google Scholar

Mysen, B.O., Seifert, F., and Virgo, D. (1980) Structure and redox equilibria of iron-bearing silicate melts. American Mineralogist, 65, 867–884.Search in Google Scholar

Nestola, F., Tribaudino, M., Boffa Ballaran, T., Liebske, C., and Bruno, M. (2007) The crystal structure of pyroxenes along the jadeite–hedenbergite and jadeite– aegirine joins. American Mineralogist, 92, 1492–1501.10.2138/am.2007.2540Search in Google Scholar

Nytén, A., Kamali, S., Häggström, L., Gustafsson, T., and Thomas, J.O. (2006) The lithium extraction/insertion mechanism in Li2FeSiO4 Journal of Materials Chemistry, 16, 2266–2272.10.1039/B601184ESearch in Google Scholar

Oh, S.J., Cook, D.C., and Townsend, H.E. (1998) Characterization of iron oxides commonly formed as corrosion products on steel. Hyperfine Interactions, 112, 59–66.10.1023/A:1011076308501Search in Google Scholar

Palmer, D.C. (1994) Stuffed derivatives of the silica polymorphs. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 29, 83–122.Search in Google Scholar

Persson, K. (2014) Materials Data on LiFeSi3O8 (SG:2) by Materials Project. LBNL Materials Project; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), Berkeley, California.Search in Google Scholar

Plaisted, T., Mo, F., Wilson, B., Young, C., and Hrma, P. (2000) Surface crystallization and composition of spinel and acmite in high-level waste glass. Ceramics Transactions, 119, 317–325.Search in Google Scholar

Pokorny, R., and Hrma, P. (2014) Model for the conversion of nuclear waste melter feed to glass. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 445, 190–199.10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.11.009Search in Google Scholar

Rancourt, D. (1998) Recoil Mössbauer Spectral Analysis Software. Ottawa: Intelligent Scientific Applications Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Sack, R.O., Carmichael, I.S.E., Rivers, M., and Ghiorso, M.S. (1980) Ferric-ferrous equilibria in natural silicate liquids at 1 bar. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 75, 369–376.10.1007/BF00374720Search in Google Scholar

Shchipalkina, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Koshlyakova, N.N., Vigasina, M.F., and Sidorov, E.G. (2019) A new mineral ferrisanidine, K[Fe3+Si3O8 the first natural feldspar with species-defining iron. Minerals, 9, 770.10.3390/min9120770Search in Google Scholar

Vienna, J.D., Hrma, P., and Smith, D.E. (1996) Isothermal crystallization kinetics in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass. Proceedings of the Materials Research Society 465, 17–24. Cambridge University Press.10.1557/PROC-465-17Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Z., Cooney, T.F., and Sharma, S.K. (1993) High temperature structural investigation of Na2O·0.5Fe2O3·3SiO2 and Na2O·FeO·3SiO2 melts and glasses. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 115, 112–122.10.1007/BF00712983Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Z., Cooney, T.F., and Sharma, S.K. (1995) In situ structural investigation of iron-containing silicate liquids and glasses. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 1571–1577.10.1016/0016-7037(95)00063-6Search in Google Scholar

Weaver, J.L., Wall, N.A., and McCloy, J.S. (2015) Wet chemical and UV-Vis spectrometric iron speciation in quenched low and intermediate level nuclear waste glasses. MRS Proceedings, 1744, 93–100.10.1557/opl.2015.481Search in Google Scholar

Weigel, C., Cormier, L., Galoisy, L., Calas, G., Bowron, D., and Beuneu, B. (2006) Determination of Fe3+ sites in a NaFeSi2O6 glass by neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution coupled with numerical simulation. Applied Physics Letters, 89, 141911.10.1063/1.2359532Search in Google Scholar

Weigel, C., Cormier, L., Calas, G., Galoisy, L., and Bowron, D.T. (2008a) Intermediate-range order in the silicate network glasses NaFexAl1–xSi2O6 (x=0,0.5,0.8,1): A neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modeling investigation. Physical Review B, 78, 064202.10.1103/PhysRevB.78.064202Search in Google Scholar

Weigel, C., Cormier, L., Calas, G., Galoisy, L., and Bowron, D.T. (2008b) Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron diffraction and EPSR simulation. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 354, 5378–5385.10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2008.09.030Search in Google Scholar

Wilke, M., Farges, F.O., Petit, P.-E., Brown, G.E. Jr., and Martin, F.O. (2001) Oxidation state and coordination of Fe in minerals: An Fe K-XANES spectroscopic study. American Mineralogist, 86, 714–730.10.2138/am-2001-5-612Search in Google Scholar

Wilke, M., Partzsch, G.M., Bernhardt, R., and Lattard, D. (2005) Determination of the iron oxidation state in basaltic glasses using XANES at the K-edge. Chemical Geology, 220, 143–161.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.03.004Search in Google Scholar

Yamamoto, T. (2008) Assignment of pre-edge peaks in K-edge X‑ray absorption spectra of 3d transition metal compounds: electric dipole or quadrupole? X-ray Spectrometry, 37, 572–584.10.1002/xrs.1103Search in Google Scholar

Zanotto, E.D., and Cassar, D.R. (2017) The microscopic origin of the extreme glass-forming ability of albite and B2O3 Scientific Reports, 7, 43022.10.1038/srep43022Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Zhang, M., Redhammer, G., Salje, E., and Mookherjee, M. (2002) LiFeSi2O6 and NaFeSi2O6 at low temperatures: An infrared spectroscopic study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 29, 609–616.10.1007/s00269-002-0273-3Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-09-13
Accepted: 2020-02-14
Published Online: 2020-09-20
Published in Print: 2020-09-25

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 30.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.2138/am-2020-7285/html
Scroll Up Arrow