Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 7, 2020

Magma oxygen fugacity of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in convergent margin settings: Insights for the role of magma oxidation states on magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization

Yonghua Cao, Christina Yan Wang and Bo Wei
From the journal American Mineralogist

Abstract

Oxygen fugacities (fO2)of mantle-derived mafic magmas have important controls on the sulfur status and solubility of the magmas, which are key factors to the formation of magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, particularly those in convergent margin settings. To investigate the fO2of mafic magmas related to Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in convergent margin settings, we obtained the magma fO2of several Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), North China, based on the olivine-spinel oxygen barometer and the modeling of V partitioning between olivine and melt. We also calculated the mantle fO2on the basis of V/ Sc ratios of primary magmas of these intrusions.

Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the CAOB include arc-related Silurian-Carboniferous ones and post-collisional Permian-Triassic ones. Arc-related intrusions formed before the closure of the paleo-Asian ocean and include the Jinbulake, Heishan, Kuwei, and Erbutu intrusions. Post-collisional intrusions were emplaced in extensional settings after the closure of the paleo-Asian ocean and include the Kalatongke, Baixintan, Huangshandong, Huangshan, Poyi, Poshi, Tulaergen, and Hongqiling No. 7 intrusions. It is clear that the magma fO2values of all these intrusions in both settings range mostly from FMQ+0.5 (FMQ means fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffer) to FMQ+3 and are generally elevated with the fractionation of magmas, much higher than that of MORBs (FMQ-1 to FMQ+0.5). However, the mantle fO2values of these intrusions vary from ~FMQ to ~FMQ+1.0, just slightly higher than that of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) (≤FMQ). This slight difference is interpreted as the intrusions in the CAOB may have been derived from the metasomatized mantle wedges where only minor slab-derived, oxidized components were involved. Therefore, the high-magma fO2 values of most Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the CAOB were attributed to the fractionation of magmas derived from the slightly oxidized metasomatized mantle. In addition, the intrusions that host economic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in the CAOB usually have magma fO2 of >FMQ+1.0 and sulfides with mantle-like δ34S values (–1.0 to +1.1‰), indicating that the oxidized mafic magmas may be able to dissolve enough mantle-derived sulfur to form economic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits. Oxidized mafic magmas derived from metasomatized mantle sources may be an important feature of major orogenic belts.

Acknowledgments and Funding

S. Yang provided the samples of the Jinbulake intrusion and B. Su shared the EPMA data for the olivine and spinel of the Luodong intrusion. Constructive reviews by A. Tomkins and an anonymous reviewer have greatly improved the quality of this manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41730423 and 41902077), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Grant (No. 2019M653103).

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Received: 2019-11-01
Accepted: 2020-05-01
Published Online: 2020-12-07
Published in Print: 2020-12-16

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston