Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 29, 2021

The composition of garnet in granite and pegmatite from the Gangdese orogen in southeastern Tibet: Constraints on pegmatite petrogenesis

Meng Yu, Qiong-Xia Xia ORCID logo, Yong-Fei Zheng, Zi-Fu Zhao ORCID logo, Yi-Xiang Chen, Ren-Xu Chen ORCID logo, Xu Luo, Wan-Cai Li and Haijun Xu
From the journal American Mineralogist

Abstract

Two generations of garnet are recognized in a granite and a pegmatite from the Gangdese orogen in southeastern Tibet on the basis of a combined study of petrography, major and trace element profiles, and garnet O isotopes. Zircon U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotope compositions also help constrain the origin of both granite and pegmatite. The first generation of garnet (Grt-I) occurs as residues in the center of garnet grains, and it represents an early stage of nucleation related to magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Grt-I is dark in backscattered electron (BSE) images, rich in spessartine, and poor in almandine and grossular. Its chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns show obvious negative Eu anomalies and depletion in heavy REE (HREE) relative to middle REE (MREE). The second generation of pegmatite garnet (Grt-II) occurs as rims of euhedral garnets or as patches in Grt-I domains of the pegmatite, and it crystallized after dissolution of the preexisting pegmatite garnet (Grt-I domains) in the presence of the granitic magma. Compared with Grt-I, Grt-II is bright in BSE images, poor in spessartine, and rich in almandine and grossular contents. Its chondrite-normalized REE patterns exhibit obvious negative Eu anomalies but enrichment in HREE relative to MREE. The elevation of grossular and HREE contents for Grt-II relative to Grt-I domains indicate that the granitic magma had higher contents of Ca than the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. The garnets in the granite, from core to rim, display homogenous profiles in their spessartine, almandine, and pyrope contents but increasing grossular and decreasing REE contents. They are typical of magmatic garnets that crystallized from the granitic magma. Ti-in-zircon temperatures demonstrate that the granite and pegmatite may share the similar temperatures for their crystallization. Grt-II domains in the pegmatite garnet have the same major and trace element compositions as the granite garnet, suggesting that the pegmatite Grt-II domains crystallized from the same granitic magma. Therefore, the pegmatite crystallized at first from early magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, producing small amounts of Grt-I, and the fluids then mixed with the surrounding granitic magma. The U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotope analyses of zircons from the granite and pegmatite yield almost the same U-Pb ages of 77–79 Ma, positive εHf(t) values of 5.6 to 11.9, and δ18O values of 5.2 to 7.1‰. These data indicate that the granite and pegmatite were both derived from reworking of the juvenile crust in the newly accreted continental margin prior to the continental collision in the Cenozoic.

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by funds from the B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB41000000) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41822201 and 41772048). Thanks are due to Yixin Liu for her assistance with EMP analyses, to Wenlong Liu for his assistance with the SEM imaging, to Qi Chen for his assistance with the operation of the MC-LA-ICP-MS. We are grateful to Hao Cheng and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful reviews that greatly improve the manuscript.

References cited

Abbott, R.N. Jr. (1981) The role of manganese in the paragenesis of magmatic garnet: An example from the Old Woman-Piute Range, California: A discussion. The Journal of Geology, 89, 767–769. Search in Google Scholar

Amelin, Y., Lee, D.C., Halliday, A.N., and Pidgeon, R.T. (1999) Nature of the Earth’s earliest crust from hafnium isotopes in single detrital zircons. Nature, 399, 252–255. Search in Google Scholar

Amelin, Y., Lee, D.C., and Halliday, A.N. (2000) Early-middle Archean crustal evolution deduced from Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotopic studies of single zircon grains. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 4205–4225. Search in Google Scholar

Andersen, T., Griffin, W.L., and Pearson, N.J. (2002) Crustal evolution in the SW part of the Baltic Shield: The Hf isotope evidence. Journal of Petrology, 43, 1725–1747. Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, J.L. (2012) Cold pegmatite. Elements, 8, 248–248. Search in Google Scholar

Arredondo, E.H., Rossman, G.R., and Lumpkin, G.R. (2001) Hydrogen in spessartine-almandine garnets as a tracer of granitic pegmatite evolution. American Mineralogist, 86, 485–490. Search in Google Scholar

Aydar, E., and Gourgaud, A. (2002) Garnet-bearing basalts: An example from Mt. Hasan, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Mineralogy and Petrology, 75, 185–201. Search in Google Scholar

Baldwin, J.R., and Von Knorring, O. (1983) Compositional range of Mn-garnet in zoned granitic pegmatites. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 683–688. Search in Google Scholar

Baxter, E.F., and Scherer, E.E. (2013) Garnet geochronology: Timekeeper of tectono-metamorphic processes. Elements, 9, 433–438. Search in Google Scholar

Baxter, E.F., Caddick, M. J., and Dragovic, B. (2017) Garnet: A rock-forming mineral petrochronometer. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 83, 469–533. Search in Google Scholar

Blichert-Toft, J., Chauvel, C., and Albarède, F. (1997) Separation of Hf and Lu for high-precision isotope analysis of rock samples by magnetic sector-multiple collector ICP-MS. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 127, 248–260. Search in Google Scholar

Caddick, M.J., and Kohn, M.J. (2013) Garnet: Witness to the evolution of destructive plate boundaries. Elements, 9, 427–432. Search in Google Scholar

Caddick, M.J., Konopásek, J., and Thompson, A.B. (2010) Preservation of garnet growth zoning and the duration of prograde metamorphism. Journal of Petrology, 53, 2327–2347. Search in Google Scholar

Carlson, W.D. (2002) Scales of disequilibrium and rates of equilibration during metamorphism. American Mineralogist, 87, 185–204. Search in Google Scholar

Carlson, W., and Schwarze, E. (1997) Petrological significance of prograde homogenization of growth zoning in garnet: An example from the Llano Uplift. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 15, 631–644. Search in Google Scholar

Chen, Y.-X., Zhou, K., Zheng, Y.-F., Chen, R.-X., and Hu, Z.C. (2015) Garnet geochemistry records the action of metamorphic fluids in ultrahigh-pressure dioritic gneiss from the Sulu orogen. Chemical Geology, 398, 46–60. Search in Google Scholar

Cheng, H., Nakamura, E., Kobayashi, K., and Zhou, Z. (2007) Origin of atoll garnets in eclogites and implications for the redistribution of trace elements during slab exhumation in a continental subduction zone. American Minerologist, 92, 119–1129. Search in Google Scholar

Cheng, H., Bloch, E.M., Moulas, E., and Vervoort, J.D. (2020) Reconciliation of discrepant U-Pb, Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Ar-Ar and U-Th/He dates in an amphibolite from the Cathaysia Block in Southern China. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 175, 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-019-1644-9 Search in Google Scholar

Chu, M.F., Chung, S.L., Song, B., Liu, D.Y., O’Reilly, S.Y., Pearson, N.J., Ji, J.Q., and Wen, D. J. (2006) Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope constraints on the Mesozoic tectonics and crustal evolution of southern Tibet. Geology, 34, 745–748. Search in Google Scholar

Chung, S.L., Liu, D.Y., Ji, J.Q., Chu, M.F., Lee, H.Y., Wen, D.J., Lo, C.H., Lee, T.Y., Qian, Q., and Zhang, Q. (2003) Adakites from continental collision zones: melting of thickened lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Geology, 31, 1021–1024. Search in Google Scholar

Chung, S.L., Chu, M.F., Zhang, Y., Xie, Y., Lo, C.H., Lee, T.Y., Lan, C.Y., Li, X., Zhang, Y.Q., and Wang, Y. (2005) Tibetan tectonic evolution inferred from spatial and temporal variations in post-collisional magmatism. Earth Science Reviews, 68, 173–196. Search in Google Scholar

Chung, S.L., Chu, M.F., Ji, J.Q., O’Reilly, S.Y., Pearson, N.J., Liu, D.Y., Lee, T.L., and Lo, C.H. (2009) The nature and timing of crustal thickening in Southern Tibet: geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic constraints from postcollisional adakites. Tectonophysics, 477, 36–48. Search in Google Scholar

Dahlquist, J.A., Galindo, C., Pankhurst, R.J., Rapela, C.W., Alasino, P.H., Saavedra, J., and Fanning, C.M. (2007) Magmatic evolution of the Penon Rosado Granite: Petrogenesis of garnet bearing granitoids. Lithos, 95, 177–207. Search in Google Scholar

Debon, F., Le Fort, P., Sheppard, S.M., and Sonet, J. (1986) The four plutonic belts of the Transhimalaya–Himalaya: A chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and chronological synthesis along a Tibet-Nepal section. Journal of Petrology, 27, 219–250. Search in Google Scholar

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., and Zussman, J. (1992) An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, 2nd ed. Longmans. Search in Google Scholar

Dewey, J.F., Shackleton, R.M., Chang, C.F., and Sun, Y.Y. (1988) The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series A): Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 327, 379–413. Search in Google Scholar

Dong, X., Zhang, Z.M., Liu, F. He, Z.Y., and Lin, Y.H. (2014) Late Paleozoic intrusive rocks from the southeastern Lhasa terrane, Tibetan Plateau, and their Late Mesozoic metamorphism and tectonic implications. Lithos, 198–199, 249–262. Search in Google Scholar

Dorais, M.J., Pett, T.K., and Tubrett, M. (2009) Garnetites of the Cardigan Pluton, New Hampshire: Evidence for peritectic garnet entrainment and implications for source rock compositions. Journal of Petrology, 50, 1993–2016. Search in Google Scholar

Draper, D.S., Xirouchakis, D., and Agee, C.B. (2003) Trace element partitioning between garnet and chondritic melt from 5 to 9 GPa: implications for the onset of the majorite transition in the martian mantle. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 139, 149–169. Search in Google Scholar

du Bray, E.A. (1988) Garnet compositions and their use as indicators of peraluminous granitoid petrogenesis-southeastern Arabian Shield. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 205–212. Search in Google Scholar

Dziggel, A., Wulff, K., Kolb, J., Meyer, F.M., and Lahaye, Y. (2009) Significance of oscillatory and bell-shaped growth zoning in hydrothermal garnet: Evidence from the Navachab gold deposit, Namibia. Chemical Geology, 262, 262–276. Search in Google Scholar

Erdmann, S., Jamieson, R.A., and MacDonald, M.A. (2009) Evaluating the origin of garnet, cordierite, and biotite in granitic rocks: a case study from the South Mountain Batholith, Nova Scotia. Journal of Petrology, 50, 1477–1503. Search in Google Scholar

Fisher, C.M., Vercoort, J.D., and Hanchar, J.M. (2014) Guidelines for reporting zircon Hf isotopic data by LA-MC-ICPMS and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of these data. Chemical Geology, 363, 125–133. Search in Google Scholar

Gadas, P., Novak, M., Talla, D., and Galioca, M.V. (2013) Compositional evolution of grossular garnet from leucotonalitic pegmatite at Ruda nad Moravou, Czech Republic; a complex EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, IR and CL study. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107, 311–326. Search in Google Scholar

Ganguly, J., Cheng, W., and Chakraborty, S. (1998) Cation diffusion in aluminosilicate garnets: Experimental determination in pyrope-almandine diffusion couples. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 131, 171–180. Search in Google Scholar

Gao, S., Liu, X.M., Yuan, H.L., Hattendorf, B., Günther, D., Chen, L., and Hu, S.H. (2002) Determination of forty-two major and trace elements in USGS and NIST SRM glasses by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Geostandards Newsletter, 26, 181–195. Search in Google Scholar

Gao, P., Zheng, Y.-F., and Zhao, Z.-F. (2016) Distinction between S-type and peraluminous I-type granites: Zircon versus whole-rock geochemistry. Lithos, 258–259, 77–91. Search in Google Scholar

García-Casco, A., Torres-Roldán, R.L., Millán, G., Monié, P., and Schneider, J. (2002) Oscillatory zoning in eclogitic garnet and amphibole, Northern Serpentinite Melange, Cuba: A record of tectonic instability during subduction? Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 20, 581–598. Search in Google Scholar

Gaspar, M., Knaack, C., Meinert, L.D., and Moretti, R. (2008) REE in skarn systems: A LA-ICPMS study of garnets from the Crown Jewel Deposit. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 185–205. Search in Google Scholar

Geisler, T., Pidgeon, R.T., Kurtz, R., van Bronswijk, W., and Schleicher, H. (2003) Experimental hydrothermal alteration of partially metamict zircon. American Mineralogist, 88, 1496–1513. Search in Google Scholar

Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Belousova, E., Jackson, S.E., van Achterbergh, E., O’Reilly, S. Y., and Shee, S.R. (2000) The Hf isotope composition of cratonic mantle: LA-MC-ICPMS analysis of zircon megacrysts in kimberlites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 133–147. Search in Google Scholar

Griffin, W.L., Wang, X., Jackson, S.E., Pearson, N.J., O’Reilly, S.Y., Xu, X., and Zhou, X. (2002) Zircon chemistry and magma mixing, SE China: In-situ analysis of Hf isotopes. Tonglu and Pingtan igneous complexes. Lithos, 61, 237–269. Search in Google Scholar

Harris, N.B.W., Xu, R.H., Lewis, C.L., and Jin, C.W. (1988a) Plutonic rocks of the 1985 Tibet Geotraverse, Lhasa to Golmud. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 327, 145–168. Search in Google Scholar

Harris, N.B.W., Holland, T.J.B., and Tindle, A.G. (1988b) Metamorphic rocks of the 1985 Tibet Geotraverse, Lhasa to Golmud. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 327, 203–213. Search in Google Scholar

Harris, N.B.W., Inger, S., and Xu, R.H. (1990) Cretaceous plutonism in Central Tibet: An example of post-collision magmatism? Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 44, 21–32. Search in Google Scholar

Hickmott, D., and Spear, F. S. (1992) Major- and trace-element zoning in garnets from calcerous pelites in the NW Shelburne Falls Quadrangle, Massachusetts: garnet growth histories in retrograded rocks. Journal of Petrology, 33, 965–1005. Search in Google Scholar

Hollister, L. S. (1966) Garnet zoning: An interpretation based on the Rayleigh fractionation model. Science, 154, 1647–1651. Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Z.C., Liu, Y.S., Gao, S., Hu, S.H., Dietiker, R., and Günther, D. (2008a) A local aerosol extraction strategy for the determination of the aerosol composition in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 23, 1192–1203. Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Z.C., Gao, S., Liu, Y.S., Hu, S.H., Chen, H.H., and Yuan, H.L. (2008b) Signal enhancement in laser ablation ICP-MS by addition of nitrogen in the central channel gas. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 23, 1093–1101. Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Z.C., Liu, Y.S., Gao, S., Xiao, S.Q., Zhao, L.S., Günther, D., Li, M., Zhang, W., and Zong, K.Q. (2012a) A “wire” signal smoothing device for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Spectrochimica Acta Part B, 78, 50–57. Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Z.C., Liu, Y.S., Gao, S., Liu, W.G., Yang, L., Zhang, W., Tong, X.R., Lin, L., Zong, K.Q., Li, M., Chen, H.H., Zhou, L., and Yang, L. (2012b) Improved in situ Hf isotope ratio analysis of zircon using newly designed X skimmer cone and Jet sample cone in combination with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation multiple collector ICP-MS. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27, 1391–1399. Search in Google Scholar

Jamtveit, B., and Anderson, T.B. (1992) Morphological instabilities during rapid growth of metamorphic garnets. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 19, 176–184. Search in Google Scholar

Ji, W.Q., Wu, F.Y., Chung, S.L., Li, J.X., and Liu, C.Z. (2009) Zircon U-Pb geochronological and Hf isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Gangdese batholith in Tibet. Chemical Geology, 262, 229–245. Search in Google Scholar

Ji, W.Q., Wu, F.Y., Chung, S.L., and Liu, C.Z. (2014) The Gangdese magmatic constraints on a latest Cretaceous lithospheric delamination of the Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet. Lithos, 210-211, 168–180. Search in Google Scholar

Kawabata, H., and Takafuji, N. (2005) Origin of garnet crystals in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Setouchi volcanic belt, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 951–971. Search in Google Scholar

Kohn, M.J. (2003) Geochemical zoning in metamorphic minerals. In R.L. Rudnick, Ed., Treatise on geochemistry, vol. 3, pp. 229–261. Elsevier. Search in Google Scholar

Kohn, M.J. (2004) Oscillatory- and sector-zoned garnets record cyclic (?) rapid thrusting in central Nepal. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 5, Q12014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GC000737 Search in Google Scholar

Kohn, M.J., Spear, F. S., and Valley, J.W. (1997) Dehydration-melting and fluid recycling during metamorphism. Rangely Formation, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Journal of Petrology, 38, 1255–1277. Search in Google Scholar

Konrad-Schmolke, M., Zack, T., O’Brien, P.J., and Jacob, D.E. (2008a) Combined thermodynamic and rare earth element modeling of garnet growth during subduction: Examples from ultrahigh-pressure eclogite of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 272, 488–498. Search in Google Scholar

Konrad-Schmolke, M., O’Brien, P.J., de Capitani, C., and Carswell, D.A. (2008b) Garnet growth at high- and ultrahigh-pressure conditions and the effect of element fractionation on mineral modes and composition. Lithos, 103, 309–332. Search in Google Scholar

Lackey, J.S., Romero, G.A., Bouvier, A.S., and Valley, J.W. (2012) Dynamic growth of garnet in granitic magmas. Geology, 40, 171–174. Search in Google Scholar

Li, Z.X., Li, X.H., Wartho, J.A., Clark, C., Li, W.X., Zhang, C.L., and Bao, C. (2010a) Magmatic and metamorphic events during the early Paleozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny, southeastern South China: New age constraints and pressure–temperature conditions. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 122, 772–793. Search in Google Scholar

Li, Q.L., Li, X.H., Liu, Y., Tang, G.Q., Yang, J.H., and Zhu, W.G. (2010b) Precise U-Pb and Pb-Pb dating of Phanerozoic baddeleyite by SIMS with oxygen flooding technique. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 25, 1107–1113. Search in Google Scholar

Li, X.H., Tang, G.Q., Gong, B., Yang, Y.H., Hou, K.J., Hu, Z.C., Li, Q.L., Liu, Y., and Li, W.X. (2013) Qinghu zircon: A working reference for microbeam analysis of U-Pb age and Hf and O isotopes. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58, 4647–4654. Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y.S., Hu, Z.C., Gao, S., Günther, D., Xu, J., Gao, C.G., and Chen, H.H. (2008) In situ analysis of major and trace elements of anhydrous minerals by LA-ICP-MS without applying an internal standard. Chemical Geology, 257, 34–43. Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y.S., Gao, S., Hu, Z., Gao, C., Zong, K., and Wang, D. (2010a) Continental and oceanic crust recycling-induced melt peridotite interactions in the Trans–North China Orogen: U-Pb dating, Hf isotopes and trace elements in zircons of mantle xenoliths. Journal of Petrology, 51, 537–571. Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y.S., Hu, Z.C., Zong, K.Q., Gao, C.G., Gao, S., Xu, J., and Chen, H.H. (2010b) Reappraisement and refinement of zircon U-Pb isotope and trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55, 1535–1546. Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Y.S., Hu, Z.C., Zong, K.Q., Gao, C.G., Gao, S., Xu, J., and Chen, H.H. (2010c) Reappraisement and refinement of zircon U–Pb isotope and trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55, 1535–1546. Search in Google Scholar

London, D. (2008) Pegmatites, 347 p. Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication, 10. Search in Google Scholar

London, D., and Kontak, D.J. (2012) Granitic pegmatites: Scientific wonders and economic bonanzas. Elements, 8, 257–261. Search in Google Scholar

Ludwig, K.R. (2003) User’s manual for Isoplot 3.00: A geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication, no. 4, 70 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Ma, L., Wang, Q., Li, Z.X., Wyman, D.A., Jiang, Z.Q., Yang, J.H., Gou, G.N., and Guo, H.F. (2013a) Early Late Cretaceous (ca. 93Ma) norites and hornblendites in the Milin area, eastern Gangdese: Lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction during slab roll-back and an insight into early Late Cretaceous (ca. 100–80Ma) magmatic “flare-up” in southern Lhasa (Tibet). Lithos, 172-173, 17–30. Search in Google Scholar

Ma, L., Wang, Q., Li, Z.X., Wyman, D.A., Jiang, Z.Q., Yang, J.H., Gou, G.N., and Guo, H.F. (2013b) Late Cretaceous (100–89 Ma) magnesian charnockites with adakitic affinities in the Milin area, eastern Gangdese: partial melting of subducted oceanic crust and implications for crustal growth in southern Tibet. Lithos, 175176, 315–332. Search in Google Scholar

Ma, L., Wang, Q., Wyman, D.A., Jiang, Z.Q., Yang, J.H., Li, Q.-L., Gou, G.N., and Guo, H.F. (2013c) Late Cretaceous crustal growth in the Gangdese area, southern Tibet: Petrological and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic evidence from Zhengga diorite-gabbro. Chemical Geology, 349-350, 54–70. Search in Google Scholar

Manning, D.A. (1983) Chemical variation in garnets from aplites and pegmatites, peninsular Thailand. Mineralogical Magazine, 47, 353–358. Search in Google Scholar

Melo, M.G., Lana, C., Stevens, G., Pedrosa-Soares, A.C., Gerdes, A., Alkmin, L.A., Nalini, H.A. Jr., and Alkmim, F.F. (2017) Assessing the isotopic evolution of S-type granites of the Carlos Chagas Batholith, SE Brazil: Clues from U-Pb, Hf isotopes, Ti geothermometry and trace element composition of zircon. Lithos, 284-285, 730–750. Search in Google Scholar

Miller, C.F., and Stoddard, E.F. (1981) The role of manganese in the paragenesis of magmatic garnet: an example from the Old Woman-Piute Range, California. Journal of Geology, 89, 233–246. Search in Google Scholar

Mirnejad, H., Blourian, G.H., Kheirkhah, M., Akrami, M.A., and Tutti, F. (2008) Garnet-bearing rhyolite from Deh-Salm area, Lut block, Eastern Iran: Anatexis of deep crustal rocks. Mineralogy and Petrology, 94, 259–269. Search in Google Scholar

Mo, X.X., Hou, Z.Q., Niu, Y.L., Dong, G.C., Qu, X.M., Zhao, Z.D., and Yang, Z.M. (2007) Mantle contributions to crustal thickening during continental collision: Evidence from Cenozoic igneous rocks in Southern Tibet. Lithos, 96, 225–242. Search in Google Scholar

Moretz, L., Heimann, A., Bitner, J., Wise, M., Rodrigues Soares, D., and Mousinho Ferreira, A. (2013) The composition of garnet as indicator of rare metal (Li) mineralization in granitic pegmatites. Proceeding of the 6th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, pp. 94–95. Search in Google Scholar

Muller, A., Kearsley, A., Spratt, J., and Seltmann, R. (2012) Petrogenetic implications of magmatic garnet in granitic pegmatites from southern Norway. Canadian Mineralogist, 50, 1095–1115. Search in Google Scholar

Narduzzi, F., Farina, F., Stevens, G., Lana, C., and Nalini, H.A. Jr. (2017) Magmatic garnet in the Cordilleran-type Galiléia granitoids of the Araçuaí belt (Brazil): Evidence for crystallization in the lower crust. Lithos, 282-283, 82–97. Search in Google Scholar

Otamendi, J.E., de la Rosa, J.D., Patiño Douce, A.E., and Castro, A. (2002) Rayleigh fractionation of heavy rare earths and yttrium during metamorphic garnet growth. Geology, 30, 159–162. Search in Google Scholar

Pan, G.T., Mo, X.X., Hou, Z.Q., Zhu, D.C., Wang, L.Q., Li, G.M., Zhao, Z.D., Geng, Q.R., and Liao, Z.L. (2006) Spatial-temporal framework of the Gangdese Orogenic Belt and its evolution. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 22, 521–533 (in Chinese with English abstract). Search in Google Scholar

Pan, G.T., Wang, L.Q., Li, R.S., Yuan, S.H., Ji, W.H., Yin, F.G., Zhang, W.P., and Wang, B.D. (2012) Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 53, 3–14. Search in Google Scholar

Pearce, J.A., and Deng, W.M. (1988) The ophiolites of the Tibetan Geotraverse, Lhasa to Golmud (1985) and Lhasa to Kathmandu (1986). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 327, 215–238. Search in Google Scholar

Ravikant, V., Wu, F.Y., and Ji, W.Q. (2009) Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Cretaceous-Tertiary granites in eastern Karakoram and Ladakh, India. Lithos, 110, 153–166. Search in Google Scholar

Rubatto, D., Müntener, O., Barnhorn, A., and Gregory, C. (2008) Dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon at low-temperature, high-pressure conditions (Lanzo Massif, Italy). American Mineralogist, 93, 1519–1529. Search in Google Scholar

Samadi, R., Miller, N.R., Mirnejad, H., Harris, C., Kawabata, H., and Shirdashtzadeh, N. (2014a) Origin of garnet in aplite and pegmatite from Khajeh Morad in northeastern Iran: A major, trace element, and oxygen isotope approach. Lithos, 208-209, 378–392. Search in Google Scholar

Samadi, R., Mirnejad, H., Kawabata, H., Valizadeh, M.V., Harris, C., and Gazel, E. (2014b) Magmatic garnet in the Triassic (215 Ma) Dehnow pluton of NE Iran and its petrogenetic significance. International Geology Review, 56, 596–621. Search in Google Scholar

Samson, S.D., D’Lemos, R.S., Blichert-Toft, J., and Vervoort, J. (2003) U-Pb geochronology and Hf-Nd isotope compositions of the oldest Neoproterozoic crust within the Cadomian orogen: New evidence for a unique juvenile terrane. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 208, 165–180. Search in Google Scholar

Searle, M.P., Windley, B.F., Coward, M.P., Cooper, D.J.W., Rex, A.J., Rex, D., Li, T.D., Xiao, X.C., Jan, M.Q., Thakur, V.C., and Kumar, S. (1987) The closing of Tethys and the tectonics of the Himalaya. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 98, 678–701. Search in Google Scholar

Segal, I., Halicz, L., and Platzner, I.T. (2003) Accurate isotope ratio measurements of ytterbium by multiple collection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry applying erbium and hafnium in an improved double external normalization procedure. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 18, 1217–1223. Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, W.B., and Webber, K.L. (2008) Pegmatite genesis: state of the art. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20, 421–438. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, M.P., Henderson, P., Jeffries, T.E.R., Long, J., and Williams, C.T. (2004) The rare earth elements and uranium in garnet from the Beinn an Dubhaich aureole, Skye, Scottland, UK: Constraints on processes in a dynamic hydrothermal system. Journal of Petrology, 45, 457–484. Search in Google Scholar

Spear, F. S., and Kohn, M.J. (1996) Trace element zoning in garnet as a monitor of crustal melting. Geology, 24, 1099–1102. Search in Google Scholar

Stevens, G., Villaros, A., and Moyen, J.F. (2007) Selective peritectic garnet entrainment as the origin of geochemical diversity in S-type granites. Geology, 35, 9–12. Search in Google Scholar

Sun, S.-s., and McDonough, W.F. (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalt: Implications for mantle composition and processes. Geological Society Special Publication, 42, 313–345. Search in Google Scholar

Tang, Y.-W., Cheng, L., Zhao, Z.-F., and Zheng, Y.-F. (2019) Geochemical evidence for the production of granitoids through reworking of the juvenile mafic arc crust in the Gangdese orogen, southern Tibet. Geological Society of America Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1130/B35304.1 Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, R., and Davidson, P. (2012) Water in granite and pegmatite-forming melts. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 32–46. Search in Google Scholar

Thöni, M., and Miller, C. (2004) Ordovician meta-pegmatite garnet (NW Ötztal basement, Tyrol, Eastern Alps): Preservation of magmatic garnet chemistry and Sm-Nd age during mylonitization. Chemical Geology, 209, 1–26. Search in Google Scholar

Thöni, M., Petrík, I., Janák, M., and Lupták, B. (2003) Preservation of Variscan garnet in Alpine metamorphosed pegmatite from the Veporic Unit, Western Carpathians: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotope data. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 48, 123–124. Search in Google Scholar

Valley, J.W. (2003) Oxygen isotopes in zircon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 53, 343–385. Search in Google Scholar

Valley, J.W., Kinny, P.D., Schulze, D.J., and Spicuzza, M.J. (1998) Zircon megacrysts from kimberlite: oxygen isotope variability among mantle melts. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 133, 1–11. Search in Google Scholar

Villaros, A., Stevens, G., and Buick, I.S. (2009) Tracking S-type granite from source to emplacement: Clues from garnet in the Cape Granite Suite. Lithos, 112, 217–235. Search in Google Scholar

Wang, J.L., Zhang, Z.M., and Shi, C. (2008) Anatexis and dynamics of the southeastern Lhasa terrane. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 24, 1539–1551. Search in Google Scholar

Wang, L., Zeng, L.S., Gao, L.E., and Chen, Z.Y. (2013) Early Cretaceous high Mg# and high Sr/Y clinopyroxene-bearing diorite in the southeast Gangdese batholith, Southern Tibet. Yanshi Xuebao, 29, 1977–1994 (in Chinese with English abstract). Search in Google Scholar

Watson, E.B., Wark, D.A., and Thomas, J.B. (2006) Crystallization thermometers for zircon and rutile. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 151, 413–433. Search in Google Scholar

Wen, D.-R. (2007) The Gangdese Batholith, Southern Tibet: Ages, geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis, Ph.D. thesis. National Taiwan University (140 pp.). Search in Google Scholar

Wen, D.-R., Liu, D., Chung, S.-L., Chu, M.-F., Ji, J., Zhang, Q., Song, B., Lee, T.-Y., Yeh, M.-W., and Lo, C.-H. (2008a) Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages of the Gangdese batholith and implications for Neotethyan subduction in southern Tibet. Chemical Geology, 252, 191–201. Search in Google Scholar

Wen, D.-R., Chung, S.L., Song, B., Iizuka, Y., Yang, H.J., Ji, J.Q., Liu, D.Y., and Gallet, S. (2008b) Late Cretaceous Gangdese intrusions of adakitic geochemical characteristics, SE Tibet: petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Lithos, 105, 1–11. Search in Google Scholar

Whitney, D.L., and Evans, B.W. (2010) Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 95, 185–187. Search in Google Scholar

Whitworth, M.P. (1992) Petrogenetic implications of garnets associated with lithium pegmatites from SE Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine, 56, 75–83. Search in Google Scholar

Wiedenbeck, M., Alle, P., Corfu, F., Griffin, W.L., Meier, M., Oberli, F., Quadt, A.V., Roddick, J.C., and Spiegel, W. (1995) Three natural zircon standards for U-Th-Pb, Lu-Hf, trace element and REE analyses. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 19, 1–23. Search in Google Scholar

Woodhead, J., Hergt, J., Shelley, M., Eggins, S., and Kemp, R. (2004) Zircon Hf-isotope analysis with an excimer laser, depth profiling, ablation of complex geometries, and concomitant age estimation Chemical Geology, 209, 121–135. Search in Google Scholar

Xia, Q.-X., Wang, H.-Z., Zhou, L.-G., Gao, X.-Y., Van Orman, J.A., Zheng, Y.-F., Xu, H.J., and Hu, Z.C. (2016) Growth of metamorphic and peritectic garnets in ultrahigh-pressure metagranite during continental subduction and exhumation in the Dabie orogen. Lithos, 266-267, 158–181. Search in Google Scholar

Xia, Q.-X., Gao, P., Yang, G., Zheng, Y.-F., Zhao, Z.-F., Li, W.-C., and Luo, X. (2019) The origin of garnets in anatectic rocks from the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, southeastern Tibet: Constraints from major and trace element zoning and phase equilibrium relationships. Journal of Petrology, 61, doi:10.1093/petrology/egaa009. Search in Google Scholar

Xu, R.H., Schärer, U., and Allègre, C.J. (1985) Magmatism and metamorphism in the Lhasa block (Tibet): A geochronological study. Journal of Geology, 93, 41–57. Search in Google Scholar

Yin, A., and Harrison, T.M. (2000) Geologic evolution of the Himalayan Tibetan Orogen. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 28, 211–280. Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, J. Y., Ma, C.Q., and She, Z.B. (2012) An Early Cretaceous garnet-bearing metaluminous A-type granite intrusion in the East Qinling Orogen, central China: Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical constraints. Geoscience Frontiers, 3, 635–646. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F. (1993) Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in anhydrous silicate minerals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 1079–1091. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F. (2019) Subduction zone geochemistry. Geoscience Frontiers, 10, 1223–1254. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., and Chen, Y.-X. (2016) Continental versus oceanic subduction zones. National Science Review, 3, 495–519. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., and Wu, F.-Y. (2018) The timing of continental collision between India and Asia. Science Bulletin, 63, 1649–1654. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Fu, B., Li, Y.-L., Xiao, Y.-L., and Li, S.-G. (1998) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of ultrahigh pressure eclogites from the Dabie Mountains and the Sulu terrane. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 155, 113–129. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Wang, Z.-R., Li, S.-G., and Zhao, Z.-F. (2002) Oxygen isotope equilibrium between eclogite minerals and its constraints on mineral Sm-Nd chronometer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 625–634. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Wu, Y.-B., Chen, F.K., Gong, B., Li, L., and Zhao, Z.-F. (2004) Zircon U-Pb and oxygen isotope evidence for a large-scale 18O depletion event in igneous rocks during the Neoproterozoic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68, 4145–4165. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Zhao, Z.-F., Wu, Y.-B., Zhang, S.-B., Liu, X.M., and Wu, F.-Y. (2006) Zircon U-Pb age, Hf and O isotope constraints on protolith origin of ultrahigh-pressure eclogite and gneiss in the Dabie orogen. Chemical Geology, 231, 135–158. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Chen, R.-X., and Zhao, Z.-F. (2009) Chemical geodynamics of continental subduction-zone metamorphism: Insights from studies of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) core samples. Tectonophysics, 475, 327–358. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Xiao, W.J., and Zhao, G.C. (2013) Introduction to tectonics of China. Gondwana Research, 23, 1189–1206. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y.-F., Mao, J.W., Chen, Y.J., Sun, W.D., Ni, P., and Yang, X. Y. (2019) Hydrothermal ore deposits in collision orogens. Science Bulletin, 64, 205–212. Search in Google Scholar

Zhou, L.-G., Xia, Q.-X., Zheng, Y.-F., and Chen, R.-X. (2011) Multistage growth of garnet in ultrahigh–pressure eclogite during continental collision in the Dabie orogen: Constrained by trace elements and U-Pb ages. Lithos, 127, 101–127. Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, D.C., Zhao, Z.D., Niu, Y.L., Mo, X.X., Chung, S.L., Hou, Z.Q., Wang, L.Q., and Wu, F. Y. (2011) The Lhasa Terrane: Record of a microcontinent and its histories of drift and growth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 301, 241–255. Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, D.C., Zhao, Z.D., Niu, Y., Dilek, Y., Hou, Z.Q., and Mo, X.X. (2012) The origin and pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Gondwana Research, 23, 1429–1454. Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, D.C., Wang, Q., Chung, S.-L., Cawood, P.A., and Zhao, Z.-D. (2019) Gangdese magmatism in southern Tibet and India-Asia convergence since 120 Ma. In P.J. Treloar and M.P. Searle, Eds., Himalayan Tectonics: A modern synthesis. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 483, 583–604. Search in Google Scholar

Zong, K., Liu, Y., Hu, Z., Kusky, T., Wang, D., Gao, C., Gao, S., and Wang, J. (2010) Melting-induced fluid flow during exhumation of gneisses of the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure terrane. Lithos, 120, 490–510. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-11-29
Accepted: 2020-06-17
Published Online: 2021-01-29
Published in Print: 2021-02-23

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston