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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 29, 2004

Up, Up and Away! Voter Participation in the 2004 Presidential Election

Michael P. McDonald
From the journal The Forum

A record 122.3 million people, or 60.0% of those eligible, cast a vote for president in 2004. In this essay, I examine variation in voter participation among the states. I find that electoral competition in the battleground states was associated with higher turnout rates, and that where competition at the presidential level was not present, an amendment banning gay marriage or an interesting Senate election is related to higher voter turnout.

Published Online: 2004-12-29

©2011 Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/Boston

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