This paper estimates the relationship between after-school supervision and cognitive achievement using a nationally-representative sample of children. The topic has important public policy implications due to the large role assumed by the government in providing childcare. The effects of family and nonfamily supervision are considered separately. Estimates suggest that adult supervision, regardless of whether it is provided by a family or nonfamily member, is not directly related to a child's cognitive performance. Instead, children who are likely to receive after-school adult supervision from a family member possess unmeasured personal- or family-specific traits that induce improved cognitive performance. In contrast, children who are likely to receive supervision from nonfamily members possess unmeasured traits that lead to lower cognitive outcomes.
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