This paper studies WIC eligibility and participation. These outcomes are related to economic conditions, Medicaid, cash welfare, and WIC policies, and demographic characteristics. The analysis uses state level data from 1983 to 2006, a period that covers significant expansion in the Medicaid program, the transition from AFDC to TANF, and significant changes in economic conditions. The results show that take-up has increased more than eligibility over this time period. Separating eligibility and participation is important because a number of state characteristics have opposite effects on these outcomes. Economic conditions, the Medicaid expansions, and immigration in the post-TANF period are shown to be associated with WIC eligibility and participation.
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