Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access October 6, 2009

Atom transfer radical polymerization in aqueous dispersed media

Ke Min EMAIL logo and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
From the journal Open Chemistry

Abstract

During the last decade, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) received significant attention due to its exceptional capability of synthesizing polymers with pre-determined molecular weight, well-defined molecular architectures and various functionalities. It is economically and environmentally attractive to adopt ATRP to aqueous dispersed media, although the process is challenging. This review summarizes recent developments of conducting ATRP in aqueous dispersed media. The issues related to retaining “controlled/living” character as well as colloidal stability during the polymerization have to be considered. Better understanding the ATRP mechanism and development of new initiation techniques, such as activators generated by electron transfer (AGET) significantly facilitated ATRP in aqueous systems. This review covers the most important progress of ATRP in dispersed media from 1998 to 2009, including miniemulsion, microemulsion, emulsion, suspension and dispersed polymerization.

[1] K. Matyjaszewski, Y. Gnanou, L. Leibler (Eds.), Macromolecular Engineering: Precise Synthesis, Materials Properties, Applications (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007) 10.1002/9783527631421Search in Google Scholar

[2] W.A. Braunecker, K. Matyjaszewski, Prog. Polym. Sci. 32, 93 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.11.00210.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.11.002Search in Google Scholar

[3] K. Matyjaszewski, T.P. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Radical Polymerization (Wiley, Hoboken, 2002) 10.1002/0471220450Search in Google Scholar

[4] (a) K. Matyjaszewski (Ed.), Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization: Progress in ATRP (American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 2009) ACS Symp. Ser 1023 10.1021/bk-2009-1023Search in Google Scholar

[5] (b) K. Matyjaszewski (Ed.), Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization: Progress in RAFT, DT, NMP and OMRP (American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., 2009) ACS Symp. Ser 1024 10.1021/bk-2009-1024Search in Google Scholar

[6] T. Otsu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 38, 2121 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0518(20000615)38:12<2121::AID-POLA10>3.0.CO;2-X10.1002/(SICI)1099-0518(20000615)38:12<2121::AID-POLA10>3.0.CO;2-XSearch in Google Scholar

[7] M.K. Georges et al., Macromolecules 26, 2987 (1993) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma00063a05410.1021/ma00063a054Search in Google Scholar

[8] C.J. Hawker, A.W. Bosman, E. Harth, Chem. Rev. 101, 3661 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr990119u10.1021/cr990119uSearch in Google Scholar

[9] J.-S. Wang, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 5614 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00125a03510.1021/ja00125a035Search in Google Scholar

[10] M. Kato et al., Macromolecules 28, 1721 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma00109a05610.1021/ma00109a056Search in Google Scholar

[11] K. Matyjaszewski, J. Xia, Chem. Rev. 101, 2921 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr940534g10.1021/cr940534gSearch in Google Scholar

[12] N.V. Tsarevsky, K. Matyjaszewski, Chem. Rev. 107, 2270 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr050947p10.1021/cr050947pSearch in Google Scholar

[13] S.G. Gaynor, J.-S. Wang, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 28, 8051 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma00128a01210.1021/ma00128a012Search in Google Scholar

[14] J. Chiefari et al., Macromolecules 31, 5559 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma980495110.1021/ma9804951Search in Google Scholar

[15] G. Moad, E. Rizzardo, S.H. Thang, Aust. J. Chem. 59, 669 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CH0625010.1071/CH06250Search in Google Scholar

[16] M.F. Cunningham, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 365 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.11.00210.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.11.002Search in Google Scholar

[17] R.G. Gilbert, Emulsion Polymerization (Academic, San Diego, CA, 1995) Search in Google Scholar

[18] P.A. Lovell, M.S. El-Aasser, Emulsion Polymerization and Emulsion Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1997) Search in Google Scholar

[19] J. Qiu, B. Charleux, K. Matyjaszewski, Prog. Polym. Sci. 26, 2083 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(01)00033-810.1016/S0079-6700(01)00033-8Search in Google Scholar

[20] M.F. Cunningham, Prog. Polym. Sci. 27, 1039 (2002) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(02)00008-410.1016/S0079-6700(02)00008-4Search in Google Scholar

[21] J.M. Asua, Prog. Polym. Sci. 27, 1283 (2002) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(02)00010-210.1016/S0079-6700(02)00010-2Search in Google Scholar

[22] A.B. Lowe, C.L. McCormick, Prog. Polym. Sci. 32, 283 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.11.00310.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.11.003Search in Google Scholar

[23] F.J. Schork et al., In: M. Okubo (Ed.), Miniemulsion polymerization, in Polymer Particles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005) 129 10.1007/b100115Search in Google Scholar

[24] J.B. McLeary, B. Klumperman, Soft Matter 2, 45 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b513575c10.1039/B513575CSearch in Google Scholar

[25] M. Save, Y. Guillaneuf, R.G. Gilbert, Aust. J. Chem. 59, 693 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CH0630810.1071/CH06308Search in Google Scholar

[26] P.B. Zetterlund, Y. Kagawa, M. Okubo, Chem. Rev. 108, 3747 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr800242x10.1021/cr800242xSearch in Google Scholar

[27] D.P. Curran, Synthesis 489 (1988) 10.1055/s-1988-27620Search in Google Scholar

[28] T. Pintauer, K. Matyjaszewski, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1087 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b714578k10.1039/b714578kSearch in Google Scholar

[29] K. Matyjaszewski, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 8, 197 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/poc.61008040310.1002/poc.610080403Search in Google Scholar

[30] W. Tang, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 39, 4953 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma060963410.1021/ma0609634Search in Google Scholar

[31] J. Qiu et al., Macromol. Chem. Phys. 201, 1625 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-3935(20000901)201:14<1625::AID-MACP1625>3.0.CO;2-910.1002/1521-3935(20000901)201:14<1625::AID-MACP1625>3.0.CO;2-9Search in Google Scholar

[32] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Macromolecules 34, 5125 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma010185+10.1021/ma010185+Search in Google Scholar

[33] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Macromolecules 34, 430 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma001181s10.1021/ma001181sSearch in Google Scholar

[34] C.Y. Lin et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 12762 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja803882310.1021/ja8038823Search in Google Scholar

[35] W. Tang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 10702 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja802290a10.1021/ja802290aSearch in Google Scholar

[36] S. Faucher, S. Zhu, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 677 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie049431710.1021/ie0494317Search in Google Scholar

[37] S. Faucher, P. Okrutny, S. Zhu, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46, 2726 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie061506e10.1021/ie061506eSearch in Google Scholar

[38] K. Matyjaszewski, J. Macromol. Sci., Pure Appl. Chem. A34, 1785 (1997) Search in Google Scholar

[39] K. Matyjaszewski et al., J. Phys. Org. Chem. 8, 306 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/poc.61008041410.1002/poc.610080414Search in Google Scholar

[40] G. Kickelbick, H.-J. Paik, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 32, 2941(1999) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma981843210.1021/ma9818432Search in Google Scholar

[41] H. Gao, K. Matyjaszewski, Prog. Polym. Sci. 34, 317 (2009) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.01.00110.1016/j.progpolymsci.2009.01.001Search in Google Scholar

[42] V. Coessens, T. Pintauer, K. Matyjaszewski, Prog. Polym. Sci. 26, 337 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(01)00003-X10.1016/S0079-6700(01)00003-XSearch in Google Scholar

[43] K.A. Davis, K. Matyjaszewski, Adv. Polym. Sci. 159, 1 (2002) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45806-9_110.1007/3-540-45806-9_1Search in Google Scholar

[44] K. Matyjaszewski, Polym. Int. 52, 1559 (2003) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pi.133910.1002/pi.1339Search in Google Scholar

[45] J. Pyun, T. Kowalewski, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 24, 1043 (2003) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.20030007810.1002/marc.200300078Search in Google Scholar

[46] S.S. Sheiko, B.S. Sumerlin, K. Matyjaszewski, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 759 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.05.00110.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.05.001Search in Google Scholar

[47] S. Peleshanko, V.V. Tsukruk, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 523 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.01.00310.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.01.003Search in Google Scholar

[48] K. Matyjaszewski, J. Spanswick, Materials Today, 8, 26 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1369-7021(05)00745-510.1016/S1369-7021(05)00745-5Search in Google Scholar

[49] R. Arshady, Coll. Polym. Sci. 270, 717 (1992) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0077614210.1007/BF00776142Search in Google Scholar

[50] H.G. Elias, Macromolecules. Principles: Structure, Synthesis, and Properties, 5th edition (Wiley, Weinheim, 1990) Vol. 1 Search in Google Scholar

[51] E. Vivaldo-Lima et al., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 36, 939 (1997) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie960361g10.1021/ie960361gSearch in Google Scholar

[52] C.S. Chern, Prog. Polym. Sci. 31, 443 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.02.00110.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.02.001Search in Google Scholar

[53] J. Ugelstad, M.S. El-Aasser, J.W. Vanderhoff, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed. 11, 503 (1973) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pol.1973.13011080310.1002/pol.1973.130110803Search in Google Scholar

[54] M. Antonietti, R. Basten, S. Lohmann, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 196, 441 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/macp.1995.02196020110.1002/macp.1995.021960201Search in Google Scholar

[55] P.Y. Chow, L.M. Gan, Adv. Polym. Sci. 175, 257 (2005) Search in Google Scholar

[56] S. Kawaguchi, K. Ito, Adv. Polym. Sci. 175, 299 (2005) 10.1007/b100118Search in Google Scholar

[57] S. Shen, E.D. Sudol, M.S. El-Aasser, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 32, 1087 (1994) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.1994.08032061110.1002/pola.1994.080320611Search in Google Scholar

[58] S.G. Gaynor, J. Qiu, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 31, 5951 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma980724j10.1021/ma980724jSearch in Google Scholar

[59] C. Marestin et al., Macromolecules 31, 4041 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma971095110.1021/ma9710951Search in Google Scholar

[60] S.W. Prescott et al., Macromolecules 35, 5417 (2002) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma011840g10.1021/ma011840gSearch in Google Scholar

[61] W.C. Griffin, J. Soc. Cosm. Chem. 1, 311 (1949) Search in Google Scholar

[62] M. Okubo, H. Minami, J. Zhou, Coll. Polym. Sci. 282, 747 (2004) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00396-003-1010-210.1007/s00396-003-1010-2Search in Google Scholar

[63] Y. Kagawa et al., Polymer 46, 1045 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2004.11.04010.1016/j.polymer.2004.11.040Search in Google Scholar

[64] Y. Kagawa et al., Macromolecules 40, 3062 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma062786c10.1021/ma062786cSearch in Google Scholar

[65] R.W. Simms, M.F. Cunningham, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 1628 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.2127010.1002/pola.21270Search in Google Scholar

[66] A. Guyot, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 108–109, 3 (2004) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2003.10.00910.1016/j.cis.2003.10.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[67] F. Stoffelbach et al., Macromolecules 40, 8813 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma701933610.1021/ma7019336Search in Google Scholar

[68] W. Li et al., Macromolecules 41, 6387 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma800892e10.1021/ma800892eSearch in Google Scholar

[69] W. Li, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 10378 (2009) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja904204g10.1021/ja904204gSearch in Google Scholar

[70] T. Pintauer, K. Matyjaszewski, Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1155 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2004.11.01010.1016/j.ccr.2004.11.010Search in Google Scholar

[71] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Macromolecules 34, 5125 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma010185+10.1021/ma010185+Search in Google Scholar

[72] S.V. Arehart, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 32, 2221 (1999) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma981693v10.1021/ma981693vSearch in Google Scholar

[73] J. Qiu et al., Macromol. Chem. Phys. 201, 1625 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-3935(20000901)201:14<1625::AID-MACP1625>3.0.CO;2-910.1002/1521-3935(20000901)201:14<1625::AID-MACP1625>3.0.CO;2-9Search in Google Scholar

[74] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Macromolecules 32, 6431 (1999) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma990552610.1021/ma9905526Search in Google Scholar

[75] M.J. Ziegler, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 34, 415 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma001182k10.1021/ma001182kSearch in Google Scholar

[76] K. Matyjaszewski, N.V. Tsarevsky, Nat. Chem. 1, 276 (2009) http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.25710.1038/nchem.257Search in Google Scholar

[77] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Langmuir 23, 4528 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la063402e10.1021/la063402eSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[78] R.W. Simms, M.F. Cunningham, Macromolecules 40, 860 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma061899t10.1021/ma061899tSearch in Google Scholar

[79] M. Li, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 41, 3606 (2003) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.1093610.1002/pola.10936Search in Google Scholar

[80] J. Qiu et al., Macromolecules 33, 7310 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma000720q10.1021/ma000720qSearch in Google Scholar

[81] P.B. Zetterlund, M. Okubo, Macromolecules 39, 8959 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma060841b10.1021/ma060841bSearch in Google Scholar

[82] P.B. Zetterlund, M. Okubo, Macromol. Theory Simul. 16, 221 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mats.20060008510.1002/mats.200600085Search in Google Scholar

[83] Y. Kagawa et al., Macromol. Theory Simul. 15, 608 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mats.20060004910.1002/mats.200600049Search in Google Scholar

[84] K. Min, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 38, 8131 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma051675v10.1021/ma051675vSearch in Google Scholar

[85] J.-S. Wang, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 28, 7572 (1995) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma00126a04110.1021/ma00126a041Search in Google Scholar

[86] J. Xia, S.G. Gaynor, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 31, 5958 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma980725b10.1021/ma980725bSearch in Google Scholar

[87] J. Gromada, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 34, 7664 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma010864k10.1021/ma010864kSearch in Google Scholar

[88] K. Min, H. Gao, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 3825 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja042936410.1021/ja0429364Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[89] W. Jakubowski, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 38, 4139 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma047389l10.1021/ma047389lSearch in Google Scholar

[90] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Macromolecules 31, 5967 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma980852810.1021/ma9808528Search in Google Scholar

[91] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15309 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.060267510310.1073/pnas.0602675103Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[92] W. Jakubowski, K. Min, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 39, 39 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma052271610.1021/ma0522716Search in Google Scholar

[93] H.D. Tang et al., Macromol. Rapid Commun. 29, 1834 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.20080037810.1002/marc.200800378Search in Google Scholar

[94] H. Dong, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 41, 6868 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma801755310.1021/ma8017553Search in Google Scholar

[95] H. Dong, W. Tang, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 40, 2974 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma070424e10.1021/ma070424eSearch in Google Scholar

[96] W. Jakubowski, K. Matyjaszewski, Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 45, 4482 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.20060027210.1002/anie.200600272Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[97] J.K. Oh, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 3787 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.2148210.1002/pola.21482Search in Google Scholar

[98] J.K. Oh et al., Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 448 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.01.00210.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.01.002Search in Google Scholar

[99] Y. Kwak, K. Matyjaszewski, Polym. Int. 58, 242 (2009) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pi.253010.1002/pi.2530Search in Google Scholar

[100] K. Min, H. Gao, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 40, 1789 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma070204110.1021/ma0702041Search in Google Scholar

[101] K. Matyjaszewski et al., J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 38, 4724 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0518(200012)38:1+<4724::AID-POLA120>3.0.CO;2-QSearch in Google Scholar

[102] M. Li, K. Min, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 37, 2106 (2004) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma035284x10.1021/ma035284xSearch in Google Scholar

[103] M. Li et al., Macromolecules 37, 2434 (2004) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma035712z10.1021/ma035712zSearch in Google Scholar

[104] K. Min, M. Li, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 43, 3616 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.2080910.1002/pola.20809Search in Google Scholar

[105] N.V. Tsarevsky et al., ACS Symp. Ser. 939, 184 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-2006-0939.ch01210.1021/bk-2006-0939.ch012Search in Google Scholar

[106] K. Min, H. Gao, K. Matyjaszewski, Polymer Preprints 46, 130 (2005) Search in Google Scholar

[107] K. Min, W. Jakubowski, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 27, 594 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.20060006010.1002/marc.200600060Search in Google Scholar

[108] H. Gao, K. Min, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207, 1709 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/macp.20060038110.1002/macp.200600381Search in Google Scholar

[109] K. Min, J.K. Oh, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 45, 1413 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.2191110.1002/pola.21911Search in Google Scholar

[110] K. Min et al., Macromolecules 40, 6557 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma071137d10.1021/ma071137dSearch in Google Scholar

[111] L. Bombalski et al., Macromolecules 40, 7429 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma071408k10.1021/ma071408kSearch in Google Scholar

[112] A.C.C. Esteves et al., Small 3, 1230 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.20060051010.1002/smll.200600510Search in Google Scholar

[113] C. Airaud, V. Heroguez, Y. Gnanou, Macromolecules 41, 3015 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma702682s10.1021/ma702682sSearch in Google Scholar

[114] S. Coca et al., Macromolecules 30, 6513 (1997) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma970637b10.1021/ma970637bSearch in Google Scholar

[115] S. Coca, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 30, 2808 (1997) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma970073b10.1021/ma970073bSearch in Google Scholar

[116] S.G. Gaynor, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 30, 4241 (1997) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma970358o10.1021/ma970358oSearch in Google Scholar

[117] H. Shinoda, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 34, 6243 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma010579110.1021/ma0105791Search in Google Scholar

[118] K. Matyjaszewski et al., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 36, 823 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0518(19980415)36:5<823::AID-POLA15>3.0.CO;2-I10.1002/(SICI)1099-0518(19980415)36:5<823::AID-POLA15>3.0.CO;2-ISearch in Google Scholar

[119] A. Kajiwara, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 31, 3489 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma971445j10.1021/ma971445jSearch in Google Scholar

[120] S.S. Sheiko, B.S. Sumerlin, K. Matyjaszewski, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 759 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.05.00110.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.05.001Search in Google Scholar

[121] J.-F. Lutz, H.G. Boerner, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33, 1 (2008) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.07.00510.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.07.005Search in Google Scholar

[122] Y. Yagci, M.A. Tasdelen, Prog. Polym. Sci. 31, 1133 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.07.00310.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.07.003Search in Google Scholar

[123] J.K. Oh et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5578 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja060586a10.1021/ja060586aSearch in Google Scholar

[124] J.K. Oh et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 5939 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja069150l10.1021/ja069150lSearch in Google Scholar

[125] A. Limer et al., Eur. Polym. J. 41, 805 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2004.11.00210.1016/j.eurpolymj.2004.11.002Search in Google Scholar

[126] M.M. Ali, H.D.H. Stover, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 156 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.2115210.1002/pola.21152Search in Google Scholar

[127] Y. Kagawa et al., Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2354 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.20070057710.1002/marc.200700577Search in Google Scholar

[128] G. Chambard, P. De Man, B. Klumperman, Macromol. Symp. 150, 45 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-3900(200002)150:1<45::AID-MASY45>3.0.CO;2-Z10.1002/1521-3900(200002)150:1<45::AID-MASY45>3.0.CO;2-ZSearch in Google Scholar

[129] H. Eslami, S. Zhu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 1914 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.2129710.1002/pola.21297Search in Google Scholar

[130] H. Eslami, S. Zhu, Polymer 46, 5484 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2005.05.03110.1016/j.polymer.2005.05.031Search in Google Scholar

[131] H. Peng, S. Cheng, Z. Fan, Polym. Eng. Sci. 45, 297 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pen.2027710.1002/pen.20277Search in Google Scholar

[132] K. Matyjaszewski et al., Macromol. Symp. 155, 15 (2000) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-3900(200004)155:1<15::AID-MASY15>3.0.CO;2-H10.1002/1521-3900(200004)155:1<15::AID-MASY15>3.0.CO;2-HSearch in Google Scholar

[133] J. Qiu, S.G. Gaynor, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 32, 2872 (1999) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma981695f10.1021/ma981695fSearch in Google Scholar

[134] S. Jousset et al., Macromolecules 34, 6641 (2001) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma002028110.1021/ma0020281Search in Google Scholar

[135] K. Min, H. Gao, K. Matyjaszewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 10521 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja062905410.1021/ja0629054Search in Google Scholar

[136] K. Min et al., Macromolecules 42, 1597 (2009) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma802624410.1021/ma8026244Search in Google Scholar

[137] J.L. Kendall et al., Chem. Rev. 99, 543 (1999) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr970033610.1021/cr9700336Search in Google Scholar

[138] J.-S. Song, F. Tronc, M.A. Winnik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6562 (2004) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja048862d10.1021/ja048862dSearch in Google Scholar

[139] K. Min, K. Matyjaszewski, Macromolecules 40, 7217 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma071033310.1021/ma0710333Search in Google Scholar

[140] J.-S. Song, M.A. Winnik, Macromolecules 39, 8318 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma061321j10.1021/ma061321jSearch in Google Scholar

[141] K. Min, K. Matyjaszewski, Polymer Preprints 48, 260 (2007) Search in Google Scholar

[142] W.-M. Wan, C.-Y. Pan, Macromolecules 40, 8897 (2007) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma071285410.1021/ma0712854Search in Google Scholar

[143] J. Xia et al., Macromolecules 32, 4802 (1999) http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma990038010.1021/ma9900380Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2009-10-6
Published in Print: 2009-12-1

© 2009 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 26.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.2478/s11532-009-0092-1/html
Scroll Up Arrow