Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access August 9, 2011

The relationships between depression and life activities and well-being of multiple sclerosis patients

  • Rytis Leonavičius EMAIL logo , Virginija Adomaitienė and Darius Leskauskas
From the journal Open Medicine

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most disabling neurodegenerative disorders. Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder accompanying MS. Although much attention is given to correlations between depression and MS clinical factors, analysis of correlations between depression and life activities (social, household, professional activities and family life) and the well-being of MS patients’ is insufficient. However, improvement of these functions could positively influence the outcomes of MS treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between depression, life activities of MS patients, and their proposals how to improve the well-being. Materials and methods. The study lasted three years with 270 adult MS patients involved in it. ICD-10 criteria were used to diagnose depression. Original questionnaire was used to measure life activities and the well-being of the patients. Results. Prevalence of depression was 20.7% with no difference regarding the gender. Almost 84% of depressed respondents indicated, that MS disturbs their family life, 71.4% recommended to assign more attention to MS in general and 64.3% — to include more medications into reimbursement list. Conclusions. MS patients diagnosed with depression significantly more often than non-depressed indicate that MS disturbs their family life; recommend to assign more attention to MS in general and to include more medications into reimbursement list.

[1] Pugliatti M., Sotgiu S., Rosati G., The worldwide prevalence of multiple sclerosis, Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg., 2002, 104(3), 182–191 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0303-8467(02)00036-710.1016/S0303-8467(02)00036-7Search in Google Scholar

[2] Pugliatti M., Rosati G., Carton H., Riise T., Drulovic J., Vecsei L., et al., The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Europe, Eur. J. Neurol., 2006, 13(7), 700–722 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01342.x10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01342.xSearch in Google Scholar

[3] Frohman E.M., Racke M.K., Raine C.S., Multiple sclerosis — the plaque and its pathogenesis, N. Engl. J. Med., 2006, 354(9), 942–955 http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra05213010.1056/NEJMra052130Search in Google Scholar

[4] Bar-Or A., Immunology of multiple sclerosis, Neurol. Clin., 2005, 23, 149–175 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2004.11.00110.1016/j.ncl.2004.11.001Search in Google Scholar

[5] Janardhan V., Bakshi R., Quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: the impact of fatigue and depression, J. Neurol. Sci.., 2002, 205(1), 51–58 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-510X(02)00312-X10.1016/S0022-510X(02)00312-XSearch in Google Scholar

[6] Giannini M.J., Bergmark B., Kreshover S., Elias E., Plummer C., O’Keefe E., Understanding suicide and disability through three major disabling conditions: Intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, Disabil. Health J., 2010, 3(2), 74–78 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2009.09.00110.1016/j.dhjo.2009.09.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] Fragoso Y.D., Frota E.R., Lopes J.S., Noal J.S., Giacomo M.C., Gomes S., et al., Severe depression, suicide attempts, and ideation during the use of interferon beta by patients with multiple sclerosis, Clin. Neuropharmacol., 2010, 33(6), 312–316 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNF.0b013e3181f8d51310.1097/WNF.0b013e3181f8d513Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] Patten S.B., Beck C.A., Williams J.V., Barbui C., Metz L.M., Major depression in multiple sclerosis: a population-based perspective, Neurology, 2003, 61(11), 1524–1527 10.1212/01.WNL.0000095964.34294.B4Search in Google Scholar

[9] Siegert R.J., Abernethy D.A., Depression in multiple sclerosis: a review, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2005, 76(4), 469–475 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.05463510.1136/jnnp.2004.054635Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[10] Chwastiak L., Ehde D.M., Gibbons L.E., Sullivan M., Bowen J.D., Kraft G.H., Depressive symptoms and severity of illness in multiple sclerosis: epidemiological study of a large community sample, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2002, 159(11), 1862–1868 http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.11.186210.1176/appi.ajp.159.11.1862Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] Wynia K., Middel B., van Dijk J.P., De Keyser J.H., Reijneveld S.A., The impact of disabilities on quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis, Mult. Scler., 2008, 14, 972–980 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135245850809126010.1177/1352458508091260Search in Google Scholar

[12] Putzki N., Fischer J., Gottwald K., Reifschneider G., Ries S., Siever A., et al., Quality of life in 1000 patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Eur. J. Neurol., 2009, 16, 713–720 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02572.x10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02572.xSearch in Google Scholar

[13] Hermann B.P., Vickrey B., Hays R.D., Cramer J., Devinsky O., Meador K., et al., A comparison of health-related quality of life in patients with epilepsy, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy Res. 1996, 25(2), 113–118 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-1211(96)00024-110.1016/0920-1211(96)00024-1Search in Google Scholar

[14] Hart S., Fonareva I., Merluzzi N., Mohr D.C., Treatment for depression and its relationship to improvement in quality of life and psychological well-being in multiple sclerosis patients, Quality of Life Res., 2005, 14(3), 695–703 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-004-1364-z10.1007/s11136-004-1364-zSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] Sobocki P., Pugliatti M., Lauer K., Kobelt G., Estimation of the cost of MS in Europe: extrapolations from a multinational cost study, Mult. Scler., 2007, 13(8), 1054–1064 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135245850707794110.1177/1352458507077941Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[16] Riazi A., Hobart J., Lamping D., Fitzpatrick R., Freeman J., Jenkinson C., at al., Using the SF-36 measure to compare the health impact of multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease with normal population health profiles, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2003, June, 74(6), 710–714 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.74.6.71010.1136/jnnp.74.6.710Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[17] Kurtzke J.F., Rating neurological impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS), Neurology, 1983, 33(11), 1444–1452 10.1212/WNL.33.11.1444Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[18] Moran P.J., Mohr D.C., The validity of Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression items in the assessment of depression among patients with multiple sclerosis, J. Behav. Med., 2005, 28(1), 35–41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-005-2561-010.1007/s10865-005-2561-0Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[19] Zung W.W.K., A self-rating depression scale, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1965, 12, 63–70 10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01720310065008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] Friedman S., Even C., Samuelian J.C., Guelfi J.D., Factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, B. J. Psychiatry, 2002, 181(8), 165–166 10.1192/bjp.181.2.165-aSearch in Google Scholar

[21] The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic criteria for research, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1993 Search in Google Scholar

[22] Arnett P.A., Randolph J.J., Longitudinal course of depression symptoms in multiple sclerosis, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2006, 77(5), 606–610 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.04771210.1136/jnnp.2004.047712Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[23] Galeazzi G.M., Ferrari S., Giaroli G., Mackinnon A., Merelli E., Motti L., et al., Psychiatric disorders and depression in multiple sclerosis outpatients: impact of disability and interferon beta therapy, Neurol. Sci., 2005, 26(4), 255–262 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-005-0468-810.1007/s10072-005-0468-8Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] McGuigan C., Hutchinson M., Unrecognized symptoms of depression in a community-based population with multiple sclerosis, J. Neurol., 2006, 253(2), 219–232 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-005-0963-010.1007/s00415-005-0963-0Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[25] Kessler R.C., Berglund P., Demler O., Jin R., Koretz D., Merikangas K.R., et al., The epidemiology of major depressive disorder. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), JAMA, 2003, 289(23), 3095–3105 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.23.309510.1001/jama.289.23.3095Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] Rihmer Z., Angst J., Mood disorders: epidemiology, In: Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 8th ed. (1), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005, 1575–1582 Search in Google Scholar

[27] Piccinelli M., Wilkinson G., Gender differences in depression. Critical review, Br. J. Psychiatry, 2000, 177, 486–492 http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.6.48610.1192/bjp.177.6.486Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] Buchanan R.J., Wang S., Tai-Seale M., Ju H., Analyses of nursing home residents with multiple sclerosis and depression using the Minimum Data Set, Mult. Scler., 2003, March, 9(2), 171–188 http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1352458503ms872oa10.1191/1352458503ms872oaSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[29] Chwastiak L.A., Ehde D.M., Psychiatric Issues in Multiple Sclerosis, Psychiatr. Clin. North. Am., 2007, 30(4), 803–817 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2007.07.00310.1016/j.psc.2007.07.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[30] Sollom A.C., Kneebone I.I., Treatment of depression in people who have multiple sclerosis. Mult. Scler., 2007, Jun, 13(5), 632–635 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135245850707238410.1177/1352458507072384Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[31] Blazer D.G., Depression in late life: review and commentary, J. Geront.: Med. Sci., 2003, 58A(3), 249–265 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/58.3.M24910.1093/gerona/58.3.M249Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[32] Tandberg E., Larsen J.P., Aarsland D., Cummings J.L, The occurrence of depression in Parkinson’s disease. A community-based study, Arch. Neurol., 1996, 53(2), 175–179 10.1001/archneur.1996.00550020087019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[33] Reijnders J. S., Ehrt U., Weber W. E., Aarsland D. and Leentjens A. F., A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Mov. Disord., 2008, 23(2), 183–189 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.2180310.1002/mds.21803Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] Massie M.J., Prevalence of depression in patients with cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 2004, 32, 57–71 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncimonographs/lgh01410.1093/jncimonographs/lgh014Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[35] Ciaramella A., Poli P., Assessment of depression among cancer patients: the role of pain, cancer type and treatment, Psychooncology, 2001, 10(2), 156–165 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.50510.1002/pon.505Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[36] Anderson R.J., Freedland K.E., Clouse R.E., Lustman P.J., The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes. A meta-analysis, Diabetes Care, 2001, 24(6), 1069–1078 http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.24.6.106910.2337/diacare.24.6.1069Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[37] Goldney R.D., Phillips P.J., Fisher L.J., Wilson D.H., Diabetes, depression, and quality of life: a population study, Diabetes Care, 2004, 27(5), 1066–1070 http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.5.106610.2337/diacare.27.5.1066Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[38] Thombs B.D., Bass E.B., Ford D.E., Stewart K.J., Tsilidis K.K., Patel U., et al., Prevalence of depression in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, J. Gen. Int. Med., 2006, 21, 30–38 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00269.x10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00269.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[39] Beal C., Stuifbergen A.K., Sands D.V., Brown A., Depression in multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal analysis, Arch. Psychiatr. Nurs., 2007, 21, 181–191 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2007.02.00810.1016/j.apnu.2007.02.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[40] Minden S.L., Mood disorders in multiple sclerosis: diagnosis and treatment, J. Neurovirol., 2000, 6(2), 160–167 Search in Google Scholar

[41] Pfleger C.C., Flachs E.M., Koch-Henriksen N., Social consequences of multiple sclerosis (1): early pension and temporary unemployment—a historical prospective cohort study, Mult. Scler., 2010, Jan, 16(1), 121–126 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135245850935219610.1177/1352458509352196Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[42] Pfleger C.C., Flachs E.M., Koch-Henriksen N., Social consequences of multiple sclerosis: clinical and demographic predictors — a historical prospective cohort study, Eur. J. Neurol., 2010, 17(11), 1346–1351 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03020.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[43] Julian L.J., Vella L., Vollmer T., Hadjimichael O., Mohr D.C., Employment in multiple sclerosis. Exiting and re-entering the work force, J. Neurol., 2008, 255(9), 1354–1360 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-008-0910-y10.1007/s00415-008-0910-ySearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[44] Busche K.D., Fisk J.D., Murray T.J., Metz L.M., Short term predictors of unemployment in multiple sclerosis patients. Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 2003, 30(2), 137–142 10.1017/S0317167100053403Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[45] Putzki M., Fischer J., Gottwald K., Reifschneider G., Ries S., Siever A. et al., Quality of life in 1000 patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Eur. J. Neurol., 2009, 16(6), 713–720 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02572.x10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02572.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[46] Jongen P.J., Sindic C., Carton H., Zwanikken C., Lemmens W., Borm G., Improvement of health-related quality of life in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients after 2 years of treatment with intramuscular interferon beta — 1a. J. Neurol., 2010, Apr, 257(4), 584–589 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-009-5378-x10.1007/s00415-009-5378-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[47] Einarsson U., Gottberg K., Fredrikson S., von Koch L., Holmqvist L.W., Activities of daily living and social activities in people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm County, Clin. Rehabil., 2006, 20(6), 543–551 http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0269215506cr953oa10.1191/0269215506cr953oaSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[48] Buhse M., Assessment of caregiver burden in families of persons with multiple sclerosis, J. Neurosci. Nurs., 2008, 40(1), 25–31 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01376517-200802000-0000510.1097/01376517-200802000-00005Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[49] Pfleger C.C., Flachs E.M., Koch-Henriksen N., Social consequences of multiple sclerosis. Part 2. Divorce and separation: a historical prospective cohort study, Mult. Scler., 2010, 16(7), 878–882 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135245851037097810.1177/1352458510370978Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[50] MacLurg K., Reilly P., Hawkins S., Grav O., Evason E., Whittington D., A primary care-based needs assessment of people with multiple sclerosis, Br. J. Gen. Pract., 2005, 55(514), 378–383 Search in Google Scholar

[51] Vazirinejad R., Lilley J., Ward C., A health profile of adults with multiple sclerosis living in the community, Mult. Scler., 2008, 14(8), 1099–1105 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135245850809226410.1177/1352458508092264Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[52] Koopman W.J., Benbow C.L., Vandervoort M., Top 10 needs of people with multiple sclerosis and their significant others. J. Neurosci. Nurs., 2006, 38(5), 369–373 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01376517-200610000-0000810.1097/01376517-200610000-00008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Published Online: 2011-8-9
Published in Print: 2011-10-1

© 2011 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 1.3.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.2478/s11536-011-0059-4/html
Scroll to top button