Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access February 13, 2014

Health risk assessment of exposure to formaldehyde in dental materials

  • Maya Lyapina EMAIL logo , Assya Krasteva , Maria Dencheva , Mariana Tzekova , Mariela Deliverska and Angelina Kisselova-Yaneva
From the journal Open Medicine


[1] Aalto-Korte K., Kuuliala O., Suuronen K., Alanko K., Occupational contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers. Contact Dermatitis, 2008, 5, 280–289 in Google Scholar PubMed

[2] Bostrom C.E., Almen J, Steen B, Westerholm R., Human exposure to urban air pollution. Environ Health Perspect, 1994, 102, 39–47 10.2307/3431929Search in Google Scholar

[3] White J.M.L., White I.R., de Groot A.C., Cosmetics and Skin Care Products. Contact Dermatitis, 2011, 6, 591–605 in Google Scholar

[4] Wilhelmsson B., Holmström M., Possible mechanisms of formaldehyde-induced discomfort in the upper airways. Scand J Work Environ Health, 1992, 18, 403–407 in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] el Sayed F., Seite-Bellezza D., Sans B., Bayle-Lebey P., Marguery M.C., Bazex J., Contact urticaria from formaldehyde in a root-canal dental paste. Contact Dermatitis, 1995, 33(5), 353 in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Fehr B., Huwyler T., Wüthrich B., Formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde allergy. Allergic reactions to formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde after tooth root treatments. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed, 1992, 1, 94–97 Search in Google Scholar

[7] Gawkrodger D.J., Investigation of reactions to dental materials. Br J Dermatol, 2005, 3, 479–485 in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] Hauman C.H.J., Love R.M., Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Part 2, Root-canal-filling materials. International Endodontic Journal, 2003, 36, 147–160 in Google Scholar PubMed

[9] Cohen B.I., Pagnillo M.K., Musikant B.L., Dentsch A.S., Evaluation of the release of formaldehyde for three endodontic filling materials. Oral Health, 1998, 88, 37–39 Search in Google Scholar

[10] Koch P., Occupational contact dermatitis from colophony and formaldehyde in banknote paper. Contact Dermatitis, 1995, 32, 371–37 in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] Bernstein R.S., Stayner L.T., Elliott L.J., Kimbrough R., Falk H., Blade L., Inhalation exposure to formaldehyde: an overview of its toxicology, epidemiology, monitoring, and control. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1984, 45(11), 778–785 in Google Scholar PubMed

[12] Hazardous Substances Data Bank, HSDB, National Library of Medicine, 2009, and search on CAS number Search in Google Scholar

[13] World Health Organization: International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs on the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol. Lyon, France: IARC, Vol. 88, 2006 Search in Google Scholar

[14] Nosko M., Petrova E., Lyapina M., Madjunov N., Panev T., Dragova B., et al, Occupational risk in formaldehyde exposure. Probl Hyg, 2000, 1, 16–21 (in Bulgarian) Search in Google Scholar

[15] Nosko M., Petrova E., Lyapina M., Dragova B., Boev M., Pomakov J., et al, Toxic effects of formaldehyde on occupationally exposed. Hygiene and Public Health, 2001, 2–3, 40–44 (in Bulgarian) Search in Google Scholar

[16] Doty R.L., Cometto-Muňiz J.E., Jalowayski, A.A., Dalton P., Kendal-Reed M., Hodgson M., Assessment of upper respiratory tract and ocular irritative effects of volatile chemicals in humans. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2004, 34, 85–142 in Google Scholar PubMed

[17] Lang I., Bruckner T., Triebig G., Formaldehyde and chemosensory irritation in humans: A controlled human exposure study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2008, 50, 23–36 in Google Scholar PubMed

[18] Liu K.S., Huang F.Y., Hayward S.B., Wesolowski J.J., Sexton K., Irritant effects of formaldehyde exposure in mobile homes. Environ Health Perspect, 1991, 94, 91–94 in Google Scholar

[19] Takahashi S., Tsuji K., Fujii K., Okazaki F., Takigawa T., Ohtsuka A., et al, Prospective study of clinical symptoms and skin test reactions in medical students exposed to formaldehyde gas. J Dermatol, 2007, 5, 283–289 in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] Takigawa T., Usami M., Yamasaki Y., Wang B., Sakano N., Horike T., et al, Reduction of indoor formaldehyde concentrations and subjective symptoms in a gross anatomy laboratory. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2005, 74, 1027–1033 in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] De Groot A.C., Le Coz C.J., Lensen G.J., Flyvholm M.A., Maibach H.I., Coenraads P.J., Formaldehydereleasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Formaldehyde-releasers in clothes: durable press chemical finishes. Contact Dermatitis, 2010, 1, 1–9 in Google Scholar PubMed

[22] Flyvholm M.A., Contact allergens in registered chemical products. Contact Dermatitis, 1991, 25, 49–56 in Google Scholar PubMed

[23] Kiec-Swierczynska M. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Lodz: 1990–1994. Occup Med, 1996, 48, 205–208 in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] Maibach H., Formaldehyde: effects on animal and human skin, In: Gibson J.E. (Eds.), Formaldehyde toxicity, Washington DC, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1983 Search in Google Scholar

[25] Rastogi S.C., A survey of formaldehyde in shampoos and skin creams on the Danish market. Contact Dermatitis, 1992, 27, 235–240 in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] Reich H.C., Warshaw E.M., Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins. Dermatitis, 2010, 2, 65–76 10.2310/6620.2010.09077Search in Google Scholar

[27] Pratt M.D., Belsito D.V., DeLeo V.A., Fowler J.F. Jr., Fransway A.F., Maibach H.I., et al, North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results, 2001–2002 study period. Dermatitis, 2004, 15(4), 176–183 in Google Scholar

[28] Krzyzanowski M., Quackenboss J.J., Lebowitz M.D., Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure. Environ Res, 1990, 52, 117–125 in Google Scholar

[29] Lyapina M., Zhelezova G., Petrova E., Boev M., Flow cytometric determination of neutrophil respiratory burst activity in workers exposed to formaldehyde. Intern Arch Occup Environ Health, 2004, 5, 335–340 10.1007/s00420-004-0516-3Search in Google Scholar

[30] Casset A., Purohit, A., Marchand, C., Le Calvé S., Donnay C., Uring-Lambert B., et al, The bronchial response to inhaled formaldehyde. Rev Mal Respir 2006, 23(1 Suppl), 3S25–3S34 10.1016/S0761-8425(06)73414-3Search in Google Scholar

[31] CDC Final Report on Formaldehyde Levels in FEMA-Supplied Travel Trailers, Park Models and Mobile Homes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008, Search in Google Scholar

[32] Delfino R., Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research. Environ Health Perspect, 2002, 110Suppl 4, 573–589 10.1289/ehp.02110s4573Search in Google Scholar

[33] Salthammer T., Mentese S., Marutzky R., Formaldehyde in the Indoor Environment. Chem Rev, 2010, 4, 2536–2572 in Google Scholar

[34] Andersen I., Mølhave L., Controlled human studies with formaldehyde, In: Gibson J.E. (Eds.), Formaldehyde toxicity, Washington DC, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1983 Search in Google Scholar

[35] Holmström M., Wilhelmsson B., Respiratory symptoms and pathophysiological effects of occupational exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust. Scand J Work Environ Health, 1988, 14, 306–311 in Google Scholar

[36] Ballarin C., Sarto F., Giacomelli L., Bartolucci G.B., Clonfero E., Micronucleated cells in nasal mucosa of formaldehyde-exposed workers. Mutat Res, 1992, 280(1), 1–7 in Google Scholar

[37] Boysen M., Zadig E., Digernes V., Abeler V., Reith A., Nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde: a pilot study. Br J Ind Med, 1990, 47, 116–121 10.1136/oem.47.2.116Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[38] Ravis S.M., Shaffer M.P., Shaffer C.L., Glutaraldehyde-induced and formaldehyde-induced allergic contact dermatitis among dental hygienists and assistants. JADA, 2003, 134, 1072–1078 10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0321Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Published Online: 2014-2-13
Published in Print: 2014-4-1

© 2014 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 5.3.2024 from
Scroll to top button