Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access September 13, 2013

Multisensory integration and neuroplasticity in the human cerebral cortex

  • Evangelos Paraskevopoulos EMAIL logo and Sibylle Herholz


There is a strong interaction between multisensory processing and the neuroplasticity of the human brain. On one hand, recent research demonstrates that experience and training in various domains modifies how information from the different senses is integrated; and, on the other hand multisensory training paradigms seem to be particularly effective in driving functional and structural plasticity. Multisensory training affects early sensory processing within separate sensory domains, as well as the functional and structural connectivity between uni- and multisensory brain regions. In this review, we discuss the evidence for interactions of multisensory processes and brain plasticity and give an outlook on promising clinical applications and open questions.

[1] Ghazanfar A.A., Schroeder C.E., Is neocortex essentially multisensory?, Trends in cognitive sciences, 2006, 10, 278–285 in Google Scholar PubMed

[2] Driver J., Noesselt T., Multisensory interplay reveals crossmodal influences on “sensory-specific” brain regions, neural responses, and judgments, Neuron, 2008, 57, 11–23 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[3] Alais D., Newell F.N., Mamassian P., Multisensory processing in review: from physiology to behaviour, Seeing and Perceiving, 2010, 23, 3–38 in Google Scholar PubMed

[4] Love S., Pollick F., Petrini K., Effects of experience, training and expertise on multisensory perception: investigating the link between brain and behavior, In: Esposito A. (ed.) Cognitive behavioural systems 2011, Springer, Berlin, 2012, 304–320 in Google Scholar

[5] Zatorre R.J., Fields D., Johansen-Berg H., Plasticity in gray and white: neuroimaging changes in brain structure during learning, Nat. Neurosci., 2012, 15, 528–536 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[6] Maguire E., Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2000, 97, 4398–4403 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[7] Bengtsson S.L., Nagy Z., Skare S., Forsman L., Forrsberg H., Ullén F., Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development, Nat. Neurosci., 2005, 8, 1148–1150 in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] Wan C.Y., Schlaug G., Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span, Neuroscientist, 2010, 16, 566–577 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[9] Cappe C., Rouiller E.M., Barone P., Multisensory anatomical pathways, Hearing Res., 2009, 258, 28–36 in Google Scholar PubMed

[10] Wright T., Pelphrey K., Allison T., Polysensory interactions along lateral temporal regions evoked by audiovisual speech, Cereb. Cortex, 2003, 13, 1034–1043 in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] van Atteveldt N., Formisano E., Goebel R., Blomert L., Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain, Neuron, 2004, 43, 271–282 in Google Scholar

[12] Raij T., Uutela K., Hari R., Audiovisual integration of letters in the human brain, Neuron, 2000, 28, 617–625 in Google Scholar

[13] Besle J., Fischer C., Bidet-Caulet A., Lecaignard F., Bertrand O., Giard M.H., Visual activation and audiovisual interactions in the auditory cortex during speech perception: intracranial recordings in humans, J. Neurosci., 2008, 28, 14301–14310 in Google Scholar

[14] Barraclough N.E., Xiao D., Baker C.I., Oram M.W., Perrett D.I., Integration of visual and auditory information by superior temporal sulcus neurons responsive to the sight of actions, J. Cogn. Neurosci., 2005, 17, 377–391 in Google Scholar

[15] Macaluso E., Driver J., Multisensory spatial interactions: a window onto functional integration in the human brain, Trends Neurosci., 2005, 28, 264–271 in Google Scholar

[16] Bremmer F., Schlack A., Shah N.J., Zafiris O., Kubischik M., Hoffmann K., et al., Polymodal motion processing in posterior parietal and premotor cortex: a human fMRI study stronly implies equivalencies between humans and monkeys, Neuron, 2001, 29, 287–296 in Google Scholar

[17] Makin T.R., Holmes N.P., Zohary E., Is that near my hand? Multisensory representation of peripersonal space in human intraparietal sulcus, J. Neurosci., 2007, 27, 731–740 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[18] Bien N., ten Oever S., Goebel R., Sack A.T., The sound of size: crossmodal binding in pitch-size synesthesia: a combined TMS, EEG and psychophysics study, Neuroimage, 2012, 59, 663–672 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.095Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[19] Gifford G., Cohen Y., Spatial and non-spatial auditory processing in the lateral intraparietal area, Exp. Brain Res., 2005, 162, 509–512 in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] Grunewald A., Responses to auditory stimuli in macaque lateral intraparietal area I. Effects of training, J. Neurophysiol., 1999, 82, 330–342 10.1152/jn.1999.82.1.330Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] Gifford G., Cohen Y., Effect of a central fixation light on auditory spatial responses in area LIP, J. Neurophysiol., 2004, 91, 2929–2933 in Google Scholar PubMed

[22] Beauchamp M., See me, hear me, touch me: multisensory integration in lateral occipital-temporal cortex, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 2005, 15, 1–9 in Google Scholar PubMed

[23] Fuster J.M., Bodner M., Kroger J.K., Cross-modal and cross-temporal association in neurons of frontal cortex, Nature, 2000, 405, 347–351 in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] Noppeney U., Ostwald D., Werner S., Perceptual decisions formed by accumulation of audiovisual evidence in prefrontal cortex, J. Neurosci., 2010, 30, 7434–7446 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[25] Belardinelli M.O., Sestieri C., Matteo R., Delogu F., Gratta C., Ferretti A., et al., Audio-visual crossmodal interactions in environmental perception: an fMRI investigation, Cogn. Process., 2004, 5, 167–174 10.1007/s10339-004-0024-0Search in Google Scholar

[26] Paraskevopoulos E., Kuchenbuch A., Herholz S.C., Pantev C., Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules, J. Neurosci., 2012, 32, 18196–18203 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[27] Sugihara T., Diltz M.D., Averbeck B.B., Romanski L.M., Integration of auditory and visual communication information in the primate ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, J. Neurosci., 2006, 26, 11138–11147 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[28] Romanski L.M., Representation and integration of auditory and visual stimuli in the primate ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, Cereb. Cortex, 2007, 17(Suppl. 1), i61–69 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[29] Stein B.E., Stanford T.R., Multisensory integration: current issues from the perspective of the single neuron, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2008, 9, 255–266 in Google Scholar PubMed

[30] Kayser C., Petkov C.I., Logothetis N.K., Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology, Hearing Res., 2009, 258, 80–88 in Google Scholar PubMed

[31] Pekkola J., Ojanen V., Autti T., Jääskeläinen I.P., Möttönen R., Tarkiainen A., et al., Primary auditory cortex activation by visual speech: an fMRI study at 3 T, Neuroreport, 2005, 16, 125–128 in Google Scholar

[32] Hoefer M., Tyll S., Kanowski M., Brosch M., Schoenfeld M.A., Heinze H.J., Noesselt T., Tactile stimulation and hemispheric asymmetries modulate auditory perception and neural responses in primary auditory cortex, Neuroimage, 2013, 79, 371–382 in Google Scholar

[33] Miki K., Watanabe S., Kakigi R., Interaction between auditory and visual stimulus relating to the vowel sounds in the auditory cortex in humans: a magnetoencephalographic study, Neurosci. Lett., 2004, 357, 199–202 in Google Scholar

[34] Lütkenhöner B., Lammertmann C., Simões C., Hari R., Magnetoencephalographic correlates of audiotactile interaction, Neuroimage, 2002, 15, 509–522 in Google Scholar

[35] Watkins S., Shams L., Tanaka S., Haynes J.D., Rees G., Sound alters activity in human V1 in association with illusory visual perception, Neuroimage, 2006, 31, 1247–1256 in Google Scholar

[36] Sadato N., How the blind “see” Braille: lessons from functional magnetic resonance imaging, Neuroscientist, 2005, 11, 577–582 in Google Scholar

[37] Zhou Y.D., Fuster J.M., Somatosensory cell response to an auditory cue in a haptic memory task, Behav. Brain Res., 2004, 153, 573–578 in Google Scholar

[38] Tettamanti M., Weniger D., Broca’s area: a supramodal hierarchical processor?, Cortex, 2006, 42, 491–494 in Google Scholar

[39] Eger E., Sterzer P., Russ M., Giraud A., Kleinschmidt A., A supramodal number representation in human intraparietal cortex, Neuron, 2003, 37, 719–725 in Google Scholar

[40] Roberts K., Hall D., Examining a supramodal network for conflict processing: a systematic review and novel functional magnetic resonance imaging data for related visual and auditory, J. Cogn. Neurosci., 2008, 20, 1063–1078 in Google Scholar PubMed

[41] Stein B.E., Meredith M.A., The merging of the senses, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1993 Search in Google Scholar

[42] Meredith M.A., Stein B.E., Spatial factors determine the activity of multisensory neurons in cat superior colliculus, Brain Res., 1986, 365, 350–354 in Google Scholar

[43] Jiang W., Wallace M.T., Jiang H., Vaughan J.W., Stein B.E., Two cortical areas mediate multisensory integration in superior colliculus neurons, J. Neurophysiol., 2001, 85, 506–522 10.1152/jn.2001.85.2.506Search in Google Scholar

[44] Naghavi H.R., Eriksson J., Larsson A., Nyberg L., The claustrum/ insula region integrates conceptually related sounds and pictures, Neurosci. Lett., 2007, 422, 77–80 in Google Scholar

[45] Chudler E.H., Sugiyama K., Dong W.K., Multisensory convergence and integration in the neostriatum and globus pallidus of the rat, Brain Res., 1995, 674, 33–45 in Google Scholar

[46] Kuraoka K., Nakamura K., Responses of single neurons in monkey amygdala to facial and vocal emotions, J. Neurophysiol., 2007, 97, 1379–1387 in Google Scholar PubMed

[47] Komura Y., Tamura R., Uwano T., Nishijo H., Ono T., Auditory thalamus integrates visual inputs into behavioral gains, Nat. Neurosci., 2005, 8, 1203–1209 in Google Scholar PubMed

[48] Basura G.J., Koehler S.D., Shore S.E., Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex, Brain Res., 2012, 1485, 95–107 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[49] Musacchia G., Sams M., Nicol T., Kraus N., Seeing speech affects acoustic information processing in the human brainstem, Exp. Brain Res., 2006, 168, 1–10 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[50] Senkowski D., Schneider T.R., Foxe J.J., Engel A.K., Crossmodal binding through neural coherence: implications for multisensory processing, Trends Neurosci., 2008, 31, 401–409 in Google Scholar PubMed

[51] Senkowski D., Molholm S., Gomez-Ramirez M., Foxe J.J., Oscillatory beta activity predicts response speed during a multisensory audiovisual reaction time task: a high-density electrical mapping study, Cereb. Cortex, 2006, 16, 1556–1565 in Google Scholar PubMed

[52] Klemen J., Chambers C.D., Current perspectives and methods in studying neural mechanisms of multisensory interactions, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 2012, 36, 111–133 in Google Scholar PubMed

[53] Calvert G.A., Thesen T., Multisensory integration: methodological approaches and emerging principles in the human brain, J. Physiol., Paris, 2004, 98, 191–205 in Google Scholar PubMed

[54] Liang M., Mouraux A., Iannetti G.D., Bypassing primary sensory cortices — a direct thalamocortical pathway for transmitting salient sensory information, Cereb. Cortex, 2012, 23, 1–11 in Google Scholar PubMed

[55] Mesulam M., From sensation to cognition, Brain, 1998, 121, 1013–1052 in Google Scholar PubMed

[56] Walker P., Bremner J.G., Mason U., Spring J., Mattock K., Slater A., et al., Preverbal infants’ sensitivity to synaesthetic cross-modality correspondences, Psychol. Sci., 2010, 21, 21–25 in Google Scholar PubMed

[57] Brandwein A.B., Foxe J.J., Russo N.N., Altschuler T.S., Gomes H., Molholm S., The development of audiovisual multisensory integration across childhood and early adolescence: a high-density electrical mapping study, Cereb. Cortex, 2011, 21, 1042–1055 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[58] Bavelier D., Neville H.J., Cross-modal plasticity: where and how?, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2002, 3, 443–452 10.1038/nrn848Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[59] Röder B., Wallace M., Development and plasticity of multisensory functions, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 2010, 28, 141–142 10.3233/RNN-2010-0536Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[60] McGurk H., Macdonald J., Hearing lips and seeing voices, Nature, 1976, 264, 746–748 in Google Scholar PubMed

[61] Herholz S.C., Zatorre R.J., Musical training as a framework for brain plasticity: behavior, function, and structure, Neuron, 2012, 76, 486–502 in Google Scholar PubMed

[62] Lappe C., Herholz S.C., Trainor L.J., Pantev C., Cortical plasticity induced by short-term unimodal and multimodal musical training, J. Neurosci., 2008, 28, 9632–9639 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[63] Lappe C., Trainor L.J., Herholz S.C., Pantev C., Cortical plasticity induced by short-term multimodal musical rhythm training, PloS One, 2011, 6, e21493 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[64] Paraskevopoulos E., Kuchenbuch A., Herholz S.C., Pantev C., Evidence for training-induced plasticity in multisensory brain structures: an MEG Study, PLoS One, 2012, 7, e36534 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[65] Butler A.J., James T.W., James K.H., Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations, J. Cogn. Neurosci., 2011, 23, 3515–3528 in Google Scholar PubMed

[66] Butler A.J., James K.H., Active learning of novel sound-producing objects: motor reactivation and enhancement of visuo-motor connectivity, J. Cogn. Neuroscience, 2013, 25, 203–218 in Google Scholar PubMed

[67] Bremner A., Lewkowicz D., Spence C., Multisensory development, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2012 in Google Scholar

[68] Stein B.E., Rowland B.A., Organization and plasticity in multisensory integration: early and late experience affects its governing principles, Prog. Brain Res., 2011, 191, 145–163 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[69] Wallace M.T., Carriere B.N., Perrault T.J., Vaughan J.W., Stein B.E., The development of cortical multisensory integration, J. Neurosci., 2006, 26, 11844–11849 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[70] Carriere B.N., Royal D.W., Perrault T.J., Morrison S.P., Vaughan J.W., Stein B.E., et al., Visual deprivation alters the development of cortical multisensory integration, J. Neurophysiol., 2007, 98, 2858–2867 in Google Scholar PubMed

[71] Wallace M.T., Stein B.E., Early experience determines how the senses will interact, J. Neurophysiol., 2007, 97, 921–926 in Google Scholar PubMed

[72] Neil P.A., Chee-Ruiter C., Scheier C., Lewkowicz D.J., Shimojo S., Development of multisensory spatial integration and perception in humans, Dev. Sci., 2006, 9, 454–464 in Google Scholar PubMed

[73] Bahrick L.E., Lickliter R., Intersensory redundancy guides attentional selectivity and perceptual learning in infancy, Dev. Psychol., 2000, 36, 190–201 in Google Scholar

[74] Molholm S., Ritter W., Javitt D.C., Foxe J.J., Multisensory visualauditory object recognition in humans: a high-density electrical mapping study, Cereb. Cortex, 2004, 14, 452–465 in Google Scholar PubMed

[75] Ullsperger P., Erdmann U., Freude G., Dehoff W., When sound and picture do not fit: mismatch negativity and sensory interaction, Int. J. Psychophysiol., 2006, 59, 3–7 in Google Scholar PubMed

[76] Spence C., Crossmodal correspondences: a tutorial review, Atten. Percept. Psychophys., 2011, 73, 971–995 in Google Scholar PubMed

[77] Sadato N., Pascual-Leone A., Grafman J., Ibañez V., Deiber M. P., Dold G., et al., Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects, Nature, 1996, 380, 526–528 in Google Scholar PubMed

[78] Collignon O., Voss P., Lassonde M., Lepore F., Cross-modal plasticity for the spatial processing of sounds in visually deprived subjects, Exp. Brain Res., 2009, 192, 343–358 in Google Scholar PubMed

[79] Amedi A., Floel A., Knecht S., Zohary E., Cohen L.G., Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the occipital pole interferes with verbal processing in blind subjects, Nat. Neurosci., 2004, 7, 1266–1270 in Google Scholar PubMed

[80] Leonard M.K., Ferjan Ramirez N., Torres C., Travis K.E., Hatrak M., Mayberry R.I., et al., Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex, J. Neurosci., 2012, 32, 9700–9705 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[81] Sandmann P., Dillier N., Eichele T., Meyer M., Kegel A., Pascual-Marqui R.D., et al., Visual activation of auditory cortex reflects maladaptive plasticity in cochlear implant users, Brain, 2012, 135, 555–568 in Google Scholar PubMed

[82] Herholz S.C., Zatorre R.J., Musical training as a framework for brain plasticity: behavior, function, and structure, Neuron, 2012, 76, 486–502 in Google Scholar PubMed

[83] Schulz M., Ross B., Pantev C., Evidence for training-induced crossmodal reorganization of cortical functions in trumpet players, Neuroreport, 2003, 14, 157–161 in Google Scholar PubMed

[84] Bangert M., Peschel T., Schlaug G., Rotte M., Drescher D., Hinrichs S., et al., Shared networks for auditory and motor processing in professional pianists: evidence from fMRI conjunction, Neuroimage, 2006, 30, 917–926 in Google Scholar PubMed

[85] Haslinger B., Erhard P., Altenmüller E., Schroeder U., Boecker H., Ceballos-Baumann A.O., Transmodal sensorimotor networks during action observation in professional pianists, J. Cogn. Neurosci., 2005, 17, 282–293 in Google Scholar PubMed

[86] Stevenson R.A., Wilson M.M., Powers A.R., Wallace M.T., The effects of visual training on multisensory temporal processing, Exp. Brain Res., 2013, 225, 479–489 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[87] Lee H.L., Noppeney U., Long-term music training tunes how the brain temporally binds signals from multiple senses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2011, 108, E1441–E1450 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[88] Luo C., Guo Z., Lai Y., Liao W., et al., Liu Q., Kendrick K.M., et al., Musical training induces functional plasticity in perceptual and motor networks: insights from resting-state FMRI, PloS One, 2012, 7, e36568 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[89] Oechslin M.S., Imfeld A., Loenneker T., Meyer M., Jäncke L., The plasticity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of musical expertise: a diffusion tensor imaging study, Front. Hum. Neurosci., 2010, 3, 76–86 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[90] Imfeld A., Oechslin M.S., Meyer M., Loenneker T., Jancke L., White matter plasticity in the corticospinal tract of musicians: a diffusion tensor imaging study, Neuroimage, 2009, 46, 600–607 in Google Scholar PubMed

[91] Musacchia G., Sams M., Skoe E., Kraus N., Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2007, 104, 15894–15898 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[92] Lahav A., Saltzman E., Schlaug G., Action representation of sound: audiomotor recognition network while listening to newly acquired actions, J. Neurosci., 2007, 27, 308–314 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[93] D’Ausilio A., Altenmüller E., Olivetti Belardinelli M., Lotze M., Crossmodal plasticity of the motor cortex while listening to a rehearsed musical piece, Eur. J. Neurosci., 2006, 24, 955–958 in Google Scholar PubMed

[94] Chen J.L., Rae C., Watkins K.E., Learning to play a melody: an fMRI study examining the formation of auditory-motor associations, Neuroimage, 2012, 59, 1200–1208 in Google Scholar PubMed

[95] Bangert M., Altenmüller E.O., Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study, BMC Neuroscience, 2003, 4, 26–34 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[96] Naumer M.J., Doehrmann O., Müller N.G., Muckli L., Cortical plasticity of audio-visual object representations, Cereb. Cortex, 2009, 19, 1641–1653 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[97] Scholz J., Klein M.C., Behrens T.E.J., Johansen-Berg H., Training induces changes in white-matter architecture, Nat. Neurosci., 2009, 12, 1370–1371 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[98] Zatorre R.J., Chen J.L., Penhune V.B., When the brain plays music: auditory-motor interactions in music perception and production, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2007, 8, 547–558 in Google Scholar PubMed

[99] Shams L., Seitz A.R., Benefits of multisensory learning, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2008, 12, 411–417 in Google Scholar PubMed

[100] Wallace M., The development of multisensory processes, Cogn. Proc., 2004, 5, 69–83 in Google Scholar

[101] Mishra J., Martinez A., Sejnowski T.J., Hillyard S.A., Early cross-modal interactions in auditory and visual cortex underlie a sound-induced visual illusion, J. Neurosci., 2007, 27, 4120–4131 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[102] Bhattacharya J., Shams L., Shimojo S., Sound-induced illusory flash perception: role of gamma band responses, Neuroreport, 2002, 13, 1727–1730 in Google Scholar PubMed

[103] Schroeder C.E., Lakatos P., Kajikawa Y., Partan S., Puce A., Neuronal oscillations and visual amplification of speech, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2008, 12, 106–113 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[104] Roelfsema P.R., Engel A.K., König P., Singer W., Visuomotor integration is associated with zero time-lag synchronization among cortical areas, Nature, 1997, 385, 157–161 in Google Scholar PubMed

[105] Butler J.S., Foxe J., Multisensory representation of frequency across audition and touch: high density electrical mapping reveals early sensory-perceptual coupling, J. Neurosci., 2012, 32, 15338–15344 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[106] Seitz A.R., Dinse H.R., A common framework for perceptual learning, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 2007, 17, 148–153 in Google Scholar PubMed

[107] Schneider S., Schönle P., Altenmüller E., Münte T., Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke, J. Neurol., 2007, 254, 1339–1346 in Google Scholar PubMed

[108] Altenmüller E., Marco-Pallares J., Münte T.F., Schneider S., Neural reorganization underlies improvement in stroke-induced motor dysfunction by music-supported therapy, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 2009, 1169, 395–405 in Google Scholar PubMed

[109] De Bruin N., Doan J.B., Turnbull G., Suchowersky O., Bonfield S., Hu B., et al., Walking with music is a safe and viable tool for gait training in Parkinson’s disease: the effect of a 13-week feasibility study on single and dual task walking, Parkinsons Dis., 2010, 483530 10.4061/2010/483530Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[110] Thaut M.H., McIntosh G.C., Rice R.R., Miller R.A., Rathbun J., Brault J.M., Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson’s disease patients, Mov. Disord., 1996, 11, 193–200 in Google Scholar PubMed

[111] Hackney M.E., Earhart G.M., Effects of dance on movement control in Parkinson’s disease: a comparison of Argentine tango and American ballroom, J. Rehab. Med., 2009, 41, 475–481 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[112] Heiberger L., Maurer C., Amtage F., Mendez-Balbuena I., Schulte-Mönting J., Hepp-Reymond M.C., et al., Impact of a weekly dance class on the functional mobility and on the quality of life of individuals with Parkinson’s disease, Front. Aging Neurosci., 2011, 3, 14 in Google Scholar

[113] de Dreu M.J., van der Wilk A.S., Rehabilitation, exercise therapy and music in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of the effects of music-based movement therapy on walking ability, Parkinsonism Relat. Disord., 2012, 18(Suppl. 1), S114–S119 in Google Scholar

[114] Bhatt T., Yang F., Mak M.K., Hui-Chan C.W., Pai Y.C., Effect of externally cued training on dynamic stability control during the sit-to-stand task in people with Parkinson disease, Phys. Ther., 2013, 93, 492–503 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[115] Mozolic J., Hugenschmidt C., Peiffer A., Laurienti P., Multisensory integration and aging, In: Murray M.M., Wallace M.T. (eds), The neural bases of multisensory processes, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2012 10.1201/b11092-25Search in Google Scholar

[116] Wu J., Yang J., Yu Y., Li Q., Nakamura N., Shen Y., et al., Delayed audiovisual integration of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease compared with normal aged controls, J. Alzheimers Dis., 2012, 32, 317–328 10.3233/JAD-2012-111070Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[117] Foster P., Rosenblatt K., Kuljiš R., Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, Front. Neurol., 2011, 2, 28–35 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[118] Lautenschlager N.T., Cox K., Kurz A.F., Physical activity and mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, Curr. Neurol. Neurosci. Rep., 2010, 10, 352–358 in Google Scholar PubMed

[119] Valenzuela M., Brayne C., Sachdev P., Wilcock G., Matthews F., Cognitive lifestyle and long-term risk of dementia and survival after diagnosis in a multicenter population-based cohort, Am. J. Epidemiol., 2011, 173, 1004–1012 in Google Scholar PubMed

[120] Fratiglioni L., Qiu C., Prevention of common neurodegenerative disorders in the elderly, Exp. Gerontol., 2009, 44, 46–50 in Google Scholar PubMed

[121] Van De Winckel A., Feys H., De Weerdt W., Dom R., Cognitive and behavioural effects of music-based exercises in patients with dementia, Clin. Rehabil., 2004, 18, 253–260 in Google Scholar PubMed

[122] Hanna-Pladdy B., MacKay A., The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging, Neuropsychology, 2011, 25, 378–386 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[123] Parbery-Clark A., Strait D.L., Anderson S., Hittner E., Kraus N., Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise, PLoS One, 2011, 6, e18082 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[124] Parbery-Clark A., Anderson S., Hittner E., Kraus N., Musical experience offsets age-related delays in neural timing, Neurobiol. Aging, 2012, 33, 1483–1491 in Google Scholar PubMed

[125] Bezzola L., Mérillat S., Gaser C., Jäncke L., Training-induced neural plasticity in golf novices, J. Neurosci., 2011, 31, 12444–12448 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[126] Kanai R., Rees G., The structural basis of inter-individual differences in human behaviour and cognition, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2011, 12, 231–242 in Google Scholar PubMed

[127] Thiebaut de Schotten M., Ffytche D.H., Bizzi A., Dell’Acqua F., Allin M., Walshe M., et al., Atlasing location, asymmetry and inter-subject variability of white matter tracts in the human brain with MR diffusion tractography, Neuroimage, 2011, 54, 49–59 in Google Scholar PubMed

[128] Ventura-Campos N., Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds, J. Neurosci., 2013, 33, 9295–9305 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[129] Wong P.C.M., Warrier C.M., Penhune V.B., Roy A.K., Sadehh A., Parrish T.B., et al., Volume of left Heschl’s Gyrus and linguistic pitch learning, Cereb. Cortex, 2008, 18, 828–836 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[130] Zatorre R.J., Delhommeau K., Zarate J.M., Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies, Front. Psychol., 2012, 3, 544 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[131] Baldassarre A., Lewis C.M., Committeri G., Snyder A.Z., Romani G.L., Corbetta M., Individual variability in functional connectivity predicts performance of a perceptual task, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2012, 109, 3516–3521 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[132] Elbert T., Pantev C., Wienbruch C., Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players, Science, 1995, 270, 305–307 in Google Scholar PubMed

[133] Schlaug G., Jäncke L., Huang Y., In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians, Science, 1995, 267, 699–701 in Google Scholar PubMed

[134] Penhune V.B., Sensitive periods in human development: evidence from musical training, Cortex, 2011, 47, 1126–1137 in Google Scholar PubMed

[135] Steele C.J., Bailey J.A., Zatorre R.J., Penhune V.B., Early musical training and white-matter plasticity in the corpus callosum: evidence for a sensitive period, J. Neurosci., 2013, 33, 1282–1290 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[136] Boyke J., Driemeyer J., Gaser C., Buchel C., May A., Traininginduced brain structure changes in the elderly, J. Neurosci., 2008, 28, 7031–7035 in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Published Online: 2013-9-13
Published in Print: 2013-9-1

© 2013 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 26.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow