Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access December 20, 2013

Social cognition in major depressive disorder: A new paradigm?

  • Pablo Billeke EMAIL logo , Samantha Boardman and P. Doraiswamy


Social cognition refers to the brain mechanisms by which we process social information about other humans and ourselves. Alterations in interpersonal and social functioning are common in major depressive disorder, though only poorly addressed by current pharmacotherapies. Further standardized tests, such as depression ratings or neuropsychologic tests, used in routine practice provide very little information on social skills, schemas, attributions, stereotypes and judgments related to social interactions. In this article, we review recent literature on how healthy human brains process social decisions and how these processes are altered in major depressive disorder. We especially focus on interactive paradigms (e.g., game theory based tasks) that can reproduce daily life situations in laboratory settings. The evidences we review, together with the rich literature on the protective role of social networks in handling stress, have implications for developing more ecologically-valid biomarkers and interventions in order to optimize functional recovery in depressive disorders.

[1] Kessler R.C., Berglund P., Demler O., Jin R., Koretz D., Merikangas K.R., et al., The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), JAMA, 2003, 289, 3095–3105 10.1001/jama.289.23.3095Search in Google Scholar

[2] Romera I., Perez V., Menchón J.M., Delgado-Cohen H., Polavieja P., Gilaberte I., Social and occupational functioning impairment in patients in partial versus complete remission of a major depressive disorder episode. A six-month prospective epidemiological study, Eur. Psychiatry, 2010, 25, 58–65 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.02.007Search in Google Scholar

[3] Bauwens F., Pardoen D., Staner L., Dramaix M., Mendlewicz J., Social adjustment and the course of affective illness: a one-year controlled longitudinal study involving bipolar and unipolar outpatients, Depress. Anxiety, 1998, 8, 50–57 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6394(1998)8:2<50::AID-DA2>3.0.CO;2-2Search in Google Scholar

[4] Nezlek J.B., Hampton C.P., Shean G.D., Clinical depression and day-today social interaction in a community sample, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 2000, 109, 11–19 10.1037/0021-843X.109.1.11Search in Google Scholar

[5] Beesdo K., Bittner A., Pine D.S., Stein M.B., Höfler M., Lieb R., et al., Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2007, 64, 903–912 10.1001/archpsyc.64.8.903Search in Google Scholar

[6] Adolphs R., Social cognition and the human brain, Trends Cogn. Sci., 1999, 3, 469–479 10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01399-6Search in Google Scholar

[7] De Jaegher H., Di Paolo E., Gallagher S., Can social interaction constitute social cognition?, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2010, 14, 441–447 10.1016/j.tics.2010.06.009Search in Google Scholar

[8] Billeke P., Aboitiz F., Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement, Front. Psychiatry, 2013, 4, 1–12 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00004Search in Google Scholar

[9] Sanfey A.G., Social decision-making: insights from game theory and neuroscience, Science, 2007, 318, 598–602 10.1126/science.1142996Search in Google Scholar

[10] Rilling J.K., Sanfey A.G., The neuroscience of social decision-making, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 2011, 62, 23–48 10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131647Search in Google Scholar

[11] Frith C.D., Frith U., Mechanisms of social cognition, Annu. Rev. Psychol., 2012, 63, 287–313 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100449Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[12] Declerck C.H., Boone C., Emonds G., When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making, Brain Cogn., 2013, 81, 95–117 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.09.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[13] Cusi A.M., Nazarov A., Holshausen K., Macqueen G.M., McKinnon M.C., Systematic review of the neural basis of social cognition in patients with mood disorders, J. Psychiatry Neurosci., 2012, 37, 154–169 10.1503/jpn.100179Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[14] Lam R.W., Filteau M.-J., Milev R., Clinical effectiveness: the importance of psychosocial functioning outcomes, J. Affect. Disord., 2011, 132,Suppl., S9–S13 10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.046Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] Schnall S., Harber K.D., Stefanucci J.K., Proffitt D.R., Social support and the perception of geographical slant, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 2008, 44, 1246–1255 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.04.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[16] Coan J.A., Schaefer H.S., Davidson R.J., Lending a hand: social regulation of the neural response to threat, Psychol. Sci., 2006, 17, 1032–1039 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01832.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[17] Gable S.L., Gosnell C.L., The positive side of close relationships, In: Sheldon K.M., Kashdan T.B., Steger M.F. (Eds.), Designing positive psychology: taking stock and Moving Forward, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 2011, 265–279 Search in Google Scholar

[18] Kok B.E., Coffey K.A., Cohn M.A., Catalino L.I., Vacharkulksemsuk T., Algoe S.B., et al., How positive emotions build physical health: perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone, Psychol. Sci., 2013, 24, 1123–1132 10.1177/0956797612470827Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[19] Vaillant G., Spiritual evolution: a scientific defense of faith, Broadway Books, New York, USA, 2008 Search in Google Scholar

[20] Eisenberger N.I., The pain of social disconnection: examining the shared neural underpinnings of physical and social pain, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2012, 13, 421–434 10.1038/nrn3231Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] Smith K.P., Christakis N.A., Social networks and health, Annu. Rev. Sociol., 2008, 34, 405–429 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134601Search in Google Scholar

[22] Carter G.C., Cantrell R.A., Zarotsky V., Haynes V.S., Phillips G., Alatorre C.I., et al., Comprehensive review of factors implicated in the heterogeneity of response in depression, Depress. Anxiety, 2012, 29, 340–354 10.1002/da.21918Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[23] George L.K., Blazer D.G., Hughes D.C., Fowler N., Social support and the outcome of major depression, Br. J. Psychiatry, 1989, 154, 478–485 10.1192/bjp.154.4.478Search in Google Scholar

[24] Zimmer Z., Chen F.-F., Social support and change in depression among older adults in Taiwan, J. Appl. Gerontol., 2011, 31, 764–782 10.1177/0733464811401353Search in Google Scholar

[25] Cohen S., Wills T.A., Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis, Psychol. Bull., 1985, 98, 310–357 10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310Search in Google Scholar

[26] Rosenquist J.N., Fowler J.H., Christakis N.A., Social network determinants of depression, Mol. Psychiatry, 2011, 16, 273–281 10.1038/mp.2010.13Search in Google Scholar

[27] Marchand W.R., Yurgelun-Todd D., Striatal structure and function in mood disorders: a comprehensive review, Bipolar Disord., 2010, 12, 764–785 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00874.xSearch in Google Scholar

[28] Eshel N., Roiser J.P., Reward and punishment processing in depression, Biol. Psychiatry, 2010, 68, 118–124 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.027Search in Google Scholar

[29] Russo S.J., Nestler E.J., The brain reward circuitry in mood disorders, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2013, 14, 609–625 10.1038/nrn3381Search in Google Scholar

[30] Marchetti I., Koster E.H.W., Sonuga-Barke E.J., De Raedt R., The default mode network and recurrent depression: a neurobiological model of cognitive risk factors, Neuropsychol. Rev., 2012, 22, 229–251 10.1007/s11065-012-9199-9Search in Google Scholar

[31] Steffens D.C., Wagner H.R., Levy R.M., Horn K.A., Krishnan K.R., Performance feedback deficit in geriatric depression, Biol. Psychiatry, 2001, 50, 358–363 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01165-9Search in Google Scholar

[32] Elliott R., Sahakian B.J., Herrod J.J., Robbins T.W., Paykel E.S., Abnormal response to negative feedback in unipolar depression: evidence for a diagnosis specific impairment, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1997, 63, 74–82 10.1136/jnnp.63.1.74Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[33] Elliott R., Sahakian B.J., McKay A.P., Herrod J.J., Robbins T.W., Paykel E.S., Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: the influence of perceived failure on subsequent performance, Psychol. Med., 2009, 26, 975–989 10.1017/S0033291700035303Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] Pizzagalli D.A., Holmes A.J., Dillon D.G., Goetz E.L., Birk J.L., Bogdan R., et al., Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2009, 166, 702–710 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08081201Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[35] Pizzagalli D.A., Jahn A.L., O’Shea J.P., Toward an objective characterization of an anhedonic phenotype: a signal-detection approach, Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 57, 319–327 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.026Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[36] Forbes E.E., Hariri A.R., Martin S.L., Silk J.S., Moyles D.L., Fisher P.M., et al., Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2009, 166, 64–73 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081336Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[37] McCabe C., Cowen P.J., Harmer C.J., Neural representation of reward in recovered depressed patients, Psychopharmacology, 2009, 205, 667–677 10.1007/s00213-009-1573-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[38] Koolschijn P.C.M.P., van Haren N.E.M., Lensvelt-Mulders G.J.L.M., Hulshoff Pol H.E., Kahn R.S., Brain volume abnormalities in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies, Hum. Brain Mapp., 2009, 30, 3719–3735 10.1002/hbm.20801Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[39] Surguladze S., Brammer M.J., Keedwell P., Giampietro V., Young A.W., Travis M.J., Williams S.C.R., et al., A differential pattern of neural response toward sad versus happy facial expressions in major depressive disorder, Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 57, 201–209 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.10.028Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[40] Keedwell P.A., Andrew C., Williams S.C.R., Brammer M.J., Phillips M.L., A double dissociation of ventromedial prefrontal cortical responses to sad and happy stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals, Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 58, 495–503 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.04.035Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[41] Epstein J., Pan H., Kocsis J.H., Yang Y., Butler T., Chusid J., et al., Lack of ventral striatal response to positive stimuli in depressed versus normal subjects, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2006, 163, 1784–1790 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.10.1784Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[42] Keedwell P.A., Andrew C., Williams S.C.R., Brammer M.J., Phillips M.L., The neural correlates of anhedonia in major depressive disorder, Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 58, 843–853 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.05.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[43] Fox M.D., Raichle M.E., Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2007, 8, 700–711 10.1038/nrn2201Search in Google Scholar

[44] Sheline Y.I., Barch D.M., Price J.L., Rundle M.M., Vaishnavi S.N., Snyder A.Z., et al., The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, 2009, 106, 1942–1947 10.1073/pnas.0812686106Search in Google Scholar

[45] Hamilton J.P., Furman D.J., Chang C., Thomason M.E., Dennis E., Gotlib I.H., Default-mode and task-positive network activity in major depressive disorder: implications for adaptive and maladaptive rumination, Biol. Psychiatry, 2011, 70, 327–333 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.02.003Search in Google Scholar

[46] Delaveau P., Jabourian M., Lemogne C., Guionnet S., Bergouignan L., Fossati P., Brain effects of antidepressants in major depression: a meta-analysis of emotional processing studies, J. Affect. Disord., 2011, 130, 66–74 10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.032Search in Google Scholar

[47] Mayberg H.S., Lozano A.M., Voon V., McNeely H.E., Seminowicz D., Hamani C., et al., Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression, Neuron, 2005, 45, 651–660 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.02.014Search in Google Scholar

[48] Greicius M.D., Flores B.H., Menon V., Glover G.H., Solvason H.B., Kenna H., et al., Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus, Biol. Psychiatry, 2007, 62, 429–437 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.020Search in Google Scholar

[49] O’Doherty J.P., Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 2004, 14, 769–776 10.1016/j.conb.2004.10.016Search in Google Scholar

[50] Wise R.A., Brain reward circuitry: insights from unsensed incentives, Neuron, 2002, 36, 229–240 10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00965-0Search in Google Scholar

[51] Schultz W., Behavioral dopamine signals, Trends Neurosci., 2007, 30, 203–210 10.1016/j.tins.2007.03.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[52] Lee D., Game theory and neural basis of social decision making, Nat. Neurosci., 2008, 11, 404–409 10.1038/nn2065Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[53] Sally D., Conversation and cooperation in social dilemmas: a metaanalysis of experiments from 1958 to 1992, Ration. Soc., 1995, 7, 58–92 10.1177/1043463195007001004Search in Google Scholar

[54] Rilling J.K., Sanfey A.G., Aronson J.A., Nystrom L.E., Cohen J.D., Opposing BOLD responses to reciprocated and unreciprocated altruism in putative reward pathways, Neuroreport, 2004, 15, 2539–2543 10.1097/00001756-200411150-00022Search in Google Scholar

[55] Rilling J., Gutman D., Zeh T., Pagnoni G., Berns G., Kilts C., A neural basis for social cooperation, Neuron, 2002, 35, 395–405 10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00755-9Search in Google Scholar

[56] Fehr E., Camerer C.F., Social neuroeconomics: the neural circuitry of social preferences, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2007, 11, 419–427 10.1016/j.tics.2007.09.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[57] Decety J., Jackson P.L., Sommerville J.A., Chaminade T., Meltzoff A.N., The neural bases of cooperation and competition: an fMRI investigation, Neuroimage, 2004, 23, 744–751 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.05.025Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[58] Tabibnia G., Satpute A.B., Lieberman M.D., The sunny side of fairness: preference for fairness activates reward circuitry (and disregarding unfairness activates self-control circuitry), Psychol. Sci., 2008, 19, 339–347 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02091.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[59] Depue R.A., Morrone-Strupinsky J.V.. A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation, Behav. Brain Sci., 2005, 28, 313–350, discussion 350–395 10.1017/S0140525X05000063Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[60] Miller E.K., Cohen J.D., An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function, Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 2001, 24, 167–202 10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[61] McClure S.M., Laibson D.I., Loewenstein G., Cohen J.D., Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards, Science, 2004, 306, 503–507 10.1126/science.1100907Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[62] Steinbeis N., Bernhardt B.C., Singer T., Impulse control and underlying functions of the left DLPFC mediate age-related and age-independent individual differences in strategic social behavior, Neuron, 2012, 73, 1040–1051 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.12.027Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[63] Sanfey A.G., Rilling J.K., Aronson J.A., Nystrom L.E., Cohen J.D., The neural basis of economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game, Science, 2003, 300, 1755–1758 10.1126/science.1082976Search in Google Scholar

[64] Kringelbach M.L., Rolls E.T., The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology, Prog. Neurobiol., 2004, 72, 341–372 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2004.03.006Search in Google Scholar

[65] Emonds G., Declerck C.H., Boone C., Vandervliet E.J.M., Parizel P.M., The cognitive demands on cooperation in social dilemmas: an fMRI study, Soc. Neurosci., 2012, 7, 494–509 10.1080/17470919.2012.655426Search in Google Scholar

[66] Gehring W.J., Willoughby A.R., The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses, Science, 2002, 295, 2279–2282 10.1126/science.1066893Search in Google Scholar

[67] Luu P., Tucker D.M., Derryberry D., Reed M., Poulsen C., Electrophysiological responses to errors and feedback in the process of action regulation, Psychol. Sci., 2003, 14, 47–53 10.1111/1467-9280.01417Search in Google Scholar

[68] Billeke P., Zamorano F., Cosmelli D., Aboitiz F., Oscillatory brain activity correlates with risk perception and predicts social decisions, Cereb. Cortex, 2013, 23, 2872–2883 10.1093/cercor/bhs269Search in Google Scholar

[69] Boksem M., De Cremer D., Fairness concerns predict medial frontal negativity amplitude in ultimatum bargaining, Soc. Neurosci., 2010, 5, 118–128 10.1080/17470910903202666Search in Google Scholar

[70] Campanhã C., Minati L., Fregni F., Boggio P.S., Responding to unfair offers made by a friend: neuroelectrical activity changes in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, J. Neurosci., 2011, 31, 15569–15574 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1253-11.2011Search in Google Scholar

[71] Tootell R.B.H., Devaney K.J., Young J.C., Postelnicu G., Rajimehr R., Ungerleider L.G., fMRI mapping of a morphed continuum of 3D shapes within inferior temporal cortex, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, 2008, 105, 3605–3609 10.1073/pnas.0712274105Search in Google Scholar

[72] Allison T., Puce A., McCarthy G., Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2000, 4, 267–278 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01501-1Search in Google Scholar

[73] Van Overwalle F., Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis, Hum. Brain Mapp., 2009, 30, 829–858 10.1002/hbm.20547Search in Google Scholar

[74] Van Overwalle F., A dissociation between social mentalizing and general reasoning, Neuroimage, 2011, 54, 1589–1599 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.043Search in Google Scholar

[75] Van Overwalle F., Baetens K., Understanding others’ actions and goals by mirror and mentalizing systems: a meta-analysis, Neuroimage, 2009, 48, 564–584 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.06.009Search in Google Scholar

[76] Acevedo M., Krueger J.I., Evidential reasoning in the prisoner’s dilemma, Am. J. Psychol., 2005, 118, 431–457 Search in Google Scholar

[77] Ma N., Vandekerckhove M., Van Overwalle F., Seurinck R., Fias W., Spontaneous and intentional trait inferences recruit a common mentalizing network to a different degree: spontaneous inferences activate only its core areas, Soc. Neurosci., 2011, 6, 123–138 10.1080/17470919.2010.485884Search in Google Scholar

[78] Amodio D.M., Frith C.D., Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition, Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2006, 7, 268–277 10.1038/nrn1884Search in Google Scholar

[79] Frith C.D., Singer T., The role of social cognition in decision making, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 2008, 363, 3875–3886 10.1098/rstb.2008.0156Search in Google Scholar

[80] Rilling J.K., Sanfey A.G., Aronson J.A., Nystrom L.E., Cohen J.D., The neural correlates of theory of mind within interpersonal interactions, Neuroimage, 2004, 22, 1694–1703 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.04.015Search in Google Scholar

[81] Carter R.M., Bowling D.L., Reeck C., Huettel S.A., A distinct role of the temporal-parietal junction in predicting socially guided decisions, Science, 2012, 337, 109–111 10.1126/science.1219681Search in Google Scholar

[82] Laufs H., Kleinschmidt A., Beyerle A., Eger E., Salek-Haddadi A., Preibisch C., et al., EEG-correlated fMRI of human alpha activity, Neuroimage, 2003, 19, 1463–1476 10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00286-6Search in Google Scholar

[83] Leppänen J.M., Milders M., Bell J.S., Terriere E., Hietanen J.K., Depression biases the recognition of emotionally neutral faces, Psychiatry Res., 2004, 128, 123–133 10.1016/j.psychres.2004.05.020Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[84] Gotlib I.H., Krasnoperova E., Yue D.N., Joormann J., Attentional biases for negative interpersonal stimuli in clinical depression, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 2004, 113, 121–135 10.1037/0021-843X.113.1.121Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[85] Gotlib I.H., Kasch K.L., Traill S., Joormann J., Arnow B.A., Johnson S.L., Coherence and specificity of information-processing biases in depression and social phobia, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 2004, 113, 386–398 10.1037/0021-843X.113.3.386Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[86] Fuentes P., Barrós-Loscertales A., Bustamante J.C., Rosell P., Costumero V., Avila C., Individual differences in the Behavioral Inhibition System are associated with orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus gray matter volume, Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci., 2012, 12, 491–498 10.3758/s13415-012-0099-5Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[87] Townsend J.D., Eberhart N.K., Bookheimer S.Y., Eisenberger N.I., Foland-Ross L.C., Cook I.A., et al., fMRI activation in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder, Psychiatry Res., 2010, 183, 209–217 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.06.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[88] Suslow T., Konrad C., Kugel H., Rumstadt D., Zwitserlood P., Schöning S., et al., Automatic mood-congruent amygdala responses to masked facial expressions in major depression, Biol. Psychiatry, 2010, 67, 155–160 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.07.023Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[89] Victor T.A., Furey M.L., Fromm S.J., Ohman A., Drevets W.C., Relationship between amygdala responses to masked faces and mood state and treatment in major depressive disorder, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2010, 67, 1128–1138 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.144Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[90] Surguladze S.A., El-Hage W., Dalgleish T., Radua J., Gohier B., Phillips M.L., Depression is associated with increased sensitivity to signals of disgust: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, J. Psychiatr. Res., 2010, 44, 894–902 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.02.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[91] Peluso M.A., Glahn D.C., Matsuo K., Monkul E.S., Najt P., Zamarripa F., et al., Amygdala hyperactivation in untreated depressed individuals, Psychiatry Res., 2009, 173, 158–161 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.03.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[92] Matthews S.C., Strigo I.A., Simmons A.N., Yang T.T., Paulus M.P., Decreased functional coupling of the amygdala and supragenual cingulate is related to increased depression in unmedicated individuals with current major depressive disorder, J. Affect. Disord., 2008, 111, 13–20 10.1016/j.jad.2008.05.022Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[93] Dannlowski U., Ohrmann P., Bauer J., Kugel H., Arolt V., Heindel W., et al., Amygdala reactivity to masked negative faces is associated with automatic judgmental bias in major depression: a 3 T fMRI study, J. Psychiatry Neurosci., 2007, 32, 423–429 Search in Google Scholar

[94] Surguladze S., Brammer M.J., Keedwell P., Giampietro V., Young A.W., Travis M.J., et al., A differential pattern of neural response toward sad versus happy facial expressions in major depressive disorder, Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 57, 201–209 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.10.028Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[95] Canli T., Cooney R.E., Goldin P., Shah M., Sivers H., Thomason M.E., et al., Amygdala reactivity to emotional faces predicts improvement in major depression, Neuroreport, 2005, 16, 1267–1270 10.1097/01.wnr.0000174407.09515.ccSearch in Google Scholar

[96] Arnone D., McKie S., Elliott R., Thomas E.J., Downey D., Juhasz G., et al., Increased amygdala responses to sad but not fearful faces in major depression: relation to mood state and pharmacological treatment, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2012, 169, 841–850 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11121774Search in Google Scholar

[97] Sheline Y.I., Barch D.M., Donnelly J.M., Ollinger J.M., Snyder A.Z., Mintun M.A., Increased amygdala response to masked emotional faces in depressed subjects resolves with antidepressant treatment: an fMRI study, Biol. Psychiatry, 2001, 50, 651–658 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01263-XSearch in Google Scholar

[98] Walsh N.D., Kim J., Andrew C.M., Pich E.M., Williams P.M., Reed L.J., et al., Attenuation of the neural response to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment: a prospective, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2004, 61, 877–889 10.1001/archpsyc.61.9.877Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[99] Lee B.-T., Seok J.-H., Lee B.-C., Cho S.W., Yoon B.-J., Lee K.-U., et al., Neural correlates of affective processing in response to sad and angry facial stimuli in patients with major depressive disorder, Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2008, 32, 778–785 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.12.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[100] Fales C.L., Barch D.M., Rundle M.M., Mintun M.A., Snyder A.Z., Cohen J.D., et al., Altered emotional interference processing in affective and cognitive-control brain circuitry in major depression, Biol. Psychiatry, 2008, 63, 377–384 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.06.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[101] Chechko N., Augustin M., Zvyagintsev M., Schneider F., Habel U., Kellermann T., Brain circuitries involved in emotional interference task in major depression disorder, J. Affect. Disord., 2013, 149, 136–145 10.1016/j.jad.2013.01.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[102] Feeser M., Schlagenhauf F., Sterzer P., Park S., Stoy M., Gutwinski S., et al., Context insensitivity during positive and negative emotional expectancy in depression assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging, Psychiatry Res., 2013, 212, 28–35 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.11.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[103] Frodl T., Bokde A.L.W., Scheuerecker J., Lisiecka D., Schoepf V., Hampel H., et al., Functional connectivity bias of the orbitofrontal cortex in drug-free patients with major depression, Biol. Psychiatry, 2010, 67, 161–167 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.08.022Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[104] Dannlowski U., Ohrmann P., Konrad C., Domschke K., Bauer J., Kugel H., et al., Reduced amygdala-prefrontal coupling in major depression: association with MAOA genotype and illness severity, Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2009, 12, 11–22 10.1017/S1461145708008973Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[105] de Kwaasteniet B., Ruhe E., Caan M., Rive M., Olabarriaga S., Groefsema M., et al., Relation between structural and functional connectivity in major depressive disorder, Biol. Psychiatry, 2013, 74, 40–47 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.12.024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[106] Phan K.L., Fitzgerald D.A., Nathan P.J., Moore G.J., Uhde T.W., Tancer M.E., Neural substrates for voluntary suppression of negative affect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Biol. Psychiatry, 2005, 57, 210–219 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.10.030Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[107] Kettle J.W.L., O’Brien-Simpson L., Allen N.B., Impaired theory of mind in first-episode schizophrenia: comparison with community, university and depressed controls, Schizophr. Res., 2008, 99, 96–102 10.1016/j.schres.2007.11.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[108] Wolkenstein L., Schönenberg M., Schirm E., Hautzinger M., I can see what you feel, but I can’t deal with it: impaired theory of mind in depression, J. Affect. Disord., 2011, 132, 104–111 10.1016/j.jad.2011.02.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[109] Lee L., Harkness K.L., Sabbagh M.A., Jacobson J.A., Mental state decoding abilities in clinical depression, J. Affect. Disord., 2005, 86, 247–258 10.1016/j.jad.2005.02.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[110] Wang Y.-G., Wang Y.-Q., Chen S.-L., Zhu C.-Y., Wang K., Theory of mind disability in major depression with or without psychotic symptoms: a componential view, Psychiatry Res., 2008, 161, 153–161 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.07.018Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[111] Cusi A.M., Nazarov A., Macqueen G.M., McKinnon M.C., Theory of mind deficits in patients with mild symptoms of major depressive disorder, Psychiatry Res., 2013, 11, 1–3 Search in Google Scholar

[112] Fischer-Kern M., Fonagy P., Kapusta N.D., Luyten P., Boss S., Naderer A., et al., Mentalizing in female inpatients with major depressive disorder, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 2013, 201, 202–207 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182845c0aSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[113] Uekermann J., Channon S., Lehmkämper C., Abdel-Hamid M., Vollmoeller W., Daum I., Executive function, mentalizing and humor in major depression, J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc., 2008, 14, 55–62 10.1017/S1355617708080016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[114] Inoue Y., Yamada K., Kanba S., Deficit in theory of mind is a risk for relapse of major depression, J. Affect. Disord., 2006, 95, 125–127 10.1016/j.jad.2006.04.018Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[115] Inoue Y., Tonooka Y., Yamada K., Kanba S., Deficiency of theory of mind in patients with remitted mood disorder, J. Affect. Disord., 2004, 82, 403–409 10.1016/j.jad.2004.04.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[116] Humphrey N., The social function of intellect, In: Bateson P.P.G., Hinde R.A. (Eds.), Growing points in ethology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976, 303–317 Search in Google Scholar

[117] Hokanson J.E., Sacco W.P., Blumberg S.R., Landrum G.C., Interpersonal behavior of depressive individuals in a mixed-motive game, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 1980, 89, 320–332 10.1037/0021-843X.89.3.320Search in Google Scholar

[118] Hertel G., Neuhof J., Theuer T., Kerr N.L., Mood effects on cooperation in small groups: does positive mood simply lead to more cooperation?, Cogn. Emot., 2000, 14, 441–472 10.1080/026999300402754Search in Google Scholar

[119] Kirchsteiger G., Rigotti L., Rustichini A., Your morals might be your moods, J. Econ. Behav. Organ., 2006, 59, 155–172 10.1016/j.jebo.2004.07.004Search in Google Scholar

[120] Harlé K.M., Allen J.J.B., Sanfey A.G., The impact of depression on social economic decision making, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 2010, 119, 440–446 10.1037/a0018612Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[121] Harlé K.M., Sanfey A.G., Incidental sadness biases social economic decisions in the Ultimatum Game, Emotion, 2007, 7, 876–881 10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.876Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[122] Grecucci A., Giorgetta C., Van’t Wout M., Bonini N., Sanfey A.G., Reappraising the ultimatum: an fMRI study of emotion regulation and decision making, Cereb. Cortex, 2013, 23, 399–410 10.1093/cercor/bhs028Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[123] Destoop M., Schrijvers D., De Grave C., Sabbe B., De Bruijn E.R., Better to give than to take? Interactive social decision-making in severe major depressive disorder, J. Affect. Disord., 2012, 137, 98–105 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[124] Radke S., Schäfer I.C., Müller B.W., de Bruijn E.R., Do different fairness contexts and facial emotions motivate “irrational” social decision-making in major depression? An exploratory patient study, Psychiatry Res., 2013, 210, 438–443 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.017Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[125] Harkness K., Sabbagh M., Jacobson J., Chowdrey N., Chen T., Enhanced accuracy of mental state decoding in dysphoric college students, Cogn. Emot., 2005, 19, 999–1025 10.1080/02699930541000110Search in Google Scholar

[126] Harkness K.L., Jacobson J.A., Sinclair B., Chan E., Sabbagh M.A., For love or money? What motivates people to know the minds of others?, Cogn. Emot., 2012, 26, 541–549 10.1080/02699931.2011.588689Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[127] Forgas J.P., Mood and judgment: the affect infusion model (AIM), Psychol. Bull., 1995, 117, 39–66 10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.39Search in Google Scholar

[128] Lane J.D., DePaulo B.M., Completing Coyne’s cycle: dysphorics’ ability to detect deception, J. Res. Pers., 1999, 33, 311–329 10.1006/jrpe.1999.2253Search in Google Scholar

[129] Andrews P.W., Thomson J.A., The bright side of being blue: depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex problems, Psychol. Rev., 2009, 116, 620–654 10.1037/a0016242Search in Google Scholar

[130] Von Helversen B., Wilke A., Johnson T., Schmid G., Klapp B., Performance benefits of depression: sequential decision making in a healthy sample and a clinically depressed sample, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 2011, 120, 962–968 10.1037/a0023238Search in Google Scholar

[131] Watson P.J., Andrews P.W., Toward a revised evolutionary adaptationist analysis of depression: the social navigation hypothesis, J. Affect. Disord., 2002, 72, 1–14 10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00459-1Search in Google Scholar

[132] Barrett L.F., Satpute A.B., Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 2013, 23, 361–372 10.1016/j.conb.2012.12.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[133] Batson C., How social an animal? The human capacity for caring, Am. Psychol., 1990, 45, 336–346 10.1037/0003-066X.45.3.336Search in Google Scholar

[134] Meyer-Lindenberg A., Tost H., Neural mechanisms of social risk for psychiatric disorders, Nat. Neurosci., 2012, 15, 1–6 10.1038/nn.3083Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[135] Castrén E., Neuronal network plasticity and recovery from depression, JAMA Psychiatry, 2013, 70, 983–989 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[136] Zimmerman M., McGlinchey J.B., Posternak M.A., Friedman M., Attiullah N., Boerescu D., How should remission from depression be defined? The depressed patient’s perspective, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2006, 163, 148–150 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.148Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[137] McKnight P.E., Kashdan T.B., The importance of functional impairment to mental health outcomes: a case for reassessing our goals in depression treatment research, Clin. Psychol. Rev., 2009, 29, 243–259 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.005Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[138] Henrich J., Boyd R., Bowles S., Camerer C., Fehr E., Gintis H., et al., “Economic man” in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies, Behav. Brain Sci., 2005, 28, 795–815 10.1017/S0140525X05000142Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[139] Henrich J., Boyd R., McElreath R., Gurven M., Richerson P.J., Ensminger J., et al., Culture does account for variation in game behavior, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2012, 109, E32–33, author reply E34 10.1073/pnas.1118607109Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[140] Henrich J., McElreath R., Barr A., Ensminger J., Barrett C., Bolyanatz A., et al., Costly punishment across human societies, Science, 2006, 312, 1767–1770 10.1126/science.1127333Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[141] Kishida K.T., King-Casas B., Montague P.R., Neuroeconomic approaches to mental disorders, Neuron, 2010, 67, 543–554 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.07.021Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[142] Gelcich S., Guzman R., Rodríguez-Sickert C., Castilla J.C., Cárdenas J.C., Exploring external validity of common pool resource experiments: insights from artisanal benthic fisheries in Chile, Ecol. Soc., 2013, 18, 2 10.5751/ES-05598-180302Search in Google Scholar

[143] Knoch D., Schneider F., Schunk D., Hohmann M., Fehr E., Disrupting the prefrontal cortex diminishes the human ability to build a good reputation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2009, 106, 20895–20899 10.1073/pnas.0911619106Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[144] Ruff C.C., Ugazio G., Fehr E., Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation, Science, 2013, 342, 482–484 10.1126/science.1241399Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[145] Kennedy D.P., Adolphs R., The social brain in psychiatric and neurological disorders, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2012, 16, 559–572 10.1016/j.tics.2012.09.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Published Online: 2013-12-20
Published in Print: 2013-12-1

© 2013 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 2.4.2023 from
Scroll to top button