Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access March 18, 2011

The future of the CAVE

Thomas DeFanti EMAIL logo , Daniel Acevedo , Richard Ainsworth , Maxine Brown , Steven Cutchin , Gregory Dawe , Kai-Uwe Doerr , Andrew Johnson , Chris Knox , Robert Kooima , Falko Kuester , Jason Leigh , Lance Long , Peter Otto , Vid Petrovic , Kevin Ponto , Andrew Prudhomme , Ramesh Rao , Luc Renambot , Daniel Sandin , Jurgen Schulze , Larry Smarr , Madhu Srinivasan , Philip Weber and Gregory Wickham
From the journal Open Engineering

Abstract

The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

[1] Cruz-Neira C., Sandin D., DeFanti T., et al., The CAVE, Communications of the ACM, 35(6), 1992, 64–72 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/129888.12989210.1145/129888.129892Search in Google Scholar

[2] Kenyon R. V., Sandin D. Smith, Randall C., Pawlicki R., et al., Size-Constancy in the CAVE, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 16(2), 2007, 172–187 http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/pres.16.2.17210.1162/pres.16.2.172Search in Google Scholar

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave%5Automatic%5Virtual%5Environment Search in Google Scholar

[4] Sutherland I. E., A head-mounted three dimensional display, In: Proceedings of Fall joint computer conference, part I, ACM (December 9–11, 1968), 1968, 757–764 10.1145/1476589.1476686Search in Google Scholar

[5] Tan D., Gergle D., Scupelli P. and Pausch R., With similar visual angles, larger displays improve spatial performance, In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2003 10.1145/642611.642650Search in Google Scholar

[6] Tan D., Gergle D., Scupelli P. and Pausch R., Physically large displays improve performance on spatial tasks, In: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 2006 10.1145/1143518.1143521Search in Google Scholar

[7] Yost B., Haciahmetoglu Y. and North C., Beyond visual acuity: the perceptual scalability of information visualizations for large displays, In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2007 10.1145/1240624.1240639Search in Google Scholar

[8] Korab H., Brown M., (Eds.), Virtual Environments and Distributed Computing at SC’95: GII Testbed and HPC Challenge Applications on the I-WAY, a publication of ACM/IEEE Supercomputing’ 95, http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Training/SC95/GII.HPCC.html Search in Google Scholar

[9] DeFanti T., Brown M., and Stevens R. (Guest Editors), Virtual Reality Over High-Speed Networks, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 16(4), 1996, 14–17, 42–84 10.1109/MCG.1996.511851Search in Google Scholar

[10] Lehner V.D., DeFanti T., Distributed Virtual Reality: Supporting Remote Collaboration in Vehicle Design, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 1997, 13–17 10.1109/38.574654Search in Google Scholar

[11] Leigh J., Johnson A., DeFanti T., CAVERN: A Distributed Architecture for Supporting Scalable Persistence and Interoperability in Collaborative Virtual Environments, Virtual Reality: Research, Development and Applications, 1997 10.1145/509593.509614Search in Google Scholar

[12] Leigh J., DeFanti T., Johnson J., Brown M., et al., Global Tele-Immersion: Better Than Being There, In: ICAT’ 97, 7th Annual International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-Existence (December 3–5, 1997, Virtual Reality Society of Japan, University of Tokyo, Japan), 1997, 10–17 Search in Google Scholar

[13] Leigh J., Park K., Kenyon R.V., Johnson A.E., et al., Preliminary STARTAP Tele-Immersion Experiments between Chicago and Singapore, In: 3rd High Performance Computing Asia Conference & Exhibition (September, 1998, Singapore), 22–25, 1998, 687–693 Search in Google Scholar

[14] Leigh J., Johnson A., Renambot L., DeFanti T., et al., Emerging from the CAVE: Collaboration in Ultra High Resolution Environments, In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Universal Communication (June, 14–15 2007, Kyoto, Japan) Search in Google Scholar

[15] Johnson A., Leigh J., Costigan J., Multiway Tele-Immersion at Supercomputing’ 97, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 1998 10.1109/38.689653Search in Google Scholar

[16] Stevens R., DeFanti T. Tele-Immersion and Collaborative Virtual Environments, In: The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, I. Foster and C. Kesselman (Eds.), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1999, 131–158 Search in Google Scholar

[17] Park K., Cho Y., Krishnaprasad N., Scharver C., et al., CAVERNsoft G2: A Toolkit for High Performance Tele-Immersive Collaboration, In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology 2000 (October, 2000, Seoul, Korea) 10.1145/502390.502394Search in Google Scholar

[18] Smarr L., The Emergence of a Planetary-Scale Collaboratory for Data-Intensive Research, Points of View — a tribute to Alan Kay, Ian Piumarta and Kim Rose (Eds.), Viewpoints Research Institute, 2010, 79–96 Search in Google Scholar

[19] DeFanti T., Sandin D., Brown M., Pape, et al., Technologies for Virtual Reality/Tele-Immersion Applications: Issues of Research in Image Display and Global Networking (chapter), Frontiers of Human-Centered Computing, Online Communities and Virtual Environments, Rae Earnshaw, Richard Guedj, Andries van Dam and John Vince (editors), Springer-Verlag London, 2001, 137–159 10.1007/978-1-4471-0259-5_10Search in Google Scholar

[20] DeFanti T., Leigh J., Brown, M., Sandin, et al., Teleimmersion and Visualization with the OptIPuter, In: Telecommunication, Teleimmersion and Telexistence, (au]Susumu Tachi, editor), Ohmsha/IOS Press, 2003, 25–71 Search in Google Scholar

[21] Leigh J., Johnson A., Supporting Transcontinental Collaborative Work in Persistent Virtual Environments, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 1996 10.1109/38.511853Search in Google Scholar

[22] Leigh J., Johnson A., Vasilakis C., DeFanti T., Multi-Perspective Collaborative Design in Persistent Networked Virtual Environments, In: Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium VRAIS’ 96, (March 1996, Santa Clara, CA) 10.1109/VRAIS.1996.490535Search in Google Scholar

[23] Leigh J., Johnson A., DeFanti T., Issues in the Design of a Flexible Distributed Architecture for Supporting Persistence and Interoperablility in Collaborative Virtual Environments, In: Proceedings of Supercomputing’ 97, (November, 15–21, 1997, San Jose, CA) 10.1145/509593.509614Search in Google Scholar

[24] Brown M., DeFanti T., et al., The International Grid (iGrid): Empowering Global Research Community Networking Using High Performance International Internet Services, Proceedings of INET’ 99, (June, 22–25, 1999, San Jose, CA) Search in Google Scholar

[25] Jeong B., Renambot L., Jagodic R., Singh R., et al., High-Performance Dynamic Graphics Streaming for Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment, ACM/IEEE Supercomputing 2006, (November 11–17, 2006) 10.1145/1188455.1188568Search in Google Scholar

[26] Smarr L., Brown M., DeFanti T, de Laat C. (guest editors), Special issue on the International Grid (iGrid) 2005 Workshop, Future Generation Computer Systems/The International Journal of Grid Computing: Theory, Methods and Applications, Elsevier B.V., 22(8), (October, 01–31, 2006) 10.1016/j.future.2006.04.002Search in Google Scholar

[27] http://www.glif.is Search in Google Scholar

[28] Harrison C., Tan D., Morris D., Skinput: Appropriating the Body as an Input Surface, CHI 2010, (April 10–15, 2010, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) 10.1145/1753326.1753394Search in Google Scholar

[29] DeFanti T., Dawe G., Sandin D., Schulze J., et al., The StarCave, a third-generation cave and virtual reality Optiportal, In: Future Generation Computer Systems/The International Journal of Grid Computing: Theory, Methods and Applications, Elsevier B.V., 25(2), 2008, http://ivl.calit2.net/wiki/index.php/StarCAVE%5Measurement%5Diagrams 10.1016/j.future.2008.07.015Search in Google Scholar

[30] SXRD 4K Ultra-high Resolution Projectors, Sony product manual, 2009, http://pro.sony.com/bbsc/ssr/micro-sxrdsite/ Search in Google Scholar

[31] http://www.meyersound.com/pdf/case%5studies/cs%5kaust.pdf Search in Google Scholar

[32] Rhee J., Schulze J.P., DeFanti T., Hotspot Mitigation in the StarCAVE, In: Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7525: The Engineering Reality of Virtual Reality, San Jose, CA, 2010 Search in Google Scholar

[33] http://www.samsung.com/au/tv/warning.html Search in Google Scholar

[34] Lipton L., The CrystalEyes Handbook. San Rafael, CA: StereoGraphics Corporation, 1991 Search in Google Scholar

[35] Sandin D., Sandor E., Cunnally W., Resch, M. et al., Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 1083, 1989 Search in Google Scholar

[36] Sandin D., Margolis T., Dawe G., Leigh J., et al., The Varrier™ Auto-Stereographic Display, In: Proceedings of Photonics West 2001: Electronics Imaging, sponsored by SPIE, (January 20–26, 2001, San Jose, CA), http://spie.org/web/meetings/programs/pw01/home.html 10.1117/12.430818Search in Google Scholar

[37] Sandin D., Margolis T., Ge J., Girado J., et al., The Varrier Autostereoscopic Virtual Reality Display, ACM Transactions on Graphics, In: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2005, (July 31–August 4, 2005, Los Angeles, CA), 24(3), 2005, 894–903 10.1145/1073204.1073279Search in Google Scholar

[38] Peterka T., Kooima R.L., Girado J.I., Ge J., et al., Evolution of the Varrier autostereoscopic VR display, In: Proceedings IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging 2007, San Jose, CA, 2007 10.1117/12.703567Search in Google Scholar

[39] Peterka T., Kooima R.L., Girado J.I., Ge J., et al., Dynallax: Solid State Dynamic Parallax Barrier Autostereoscopic VR Display, In: Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2007 — VR’07, (March, 10–14, 2007, Charlotte, NC) 10.1109/VR.2007.352476Search in Google Scholar

[40] Peterka T., Kooima R.L., Sandin D., Johnson A., et al., Advances in the dynallax solid-state dynamic parallax barrier autostereoscopic visualization display system, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 14(3), 2008, 487–499 http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2007.7062710.1109/TVCG.2007.70627Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[41] Peterka T., Ross R., Yu H., Ma K.-L., Autostereoscopic display of large-scale scienti?c visualization, In: Proceedings IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging 2009, San Jose, CA, 2009 10.1117/12.805422Search in Google Scholar

[42] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20/20%5vision#Visual%5acuity%5expression Search in Google Scholar

[43] DeFanti T., Leigh J., Renambot L., Jeong B., et al., The OptIPortal, a Scalable Visualization, Storage, and Computing Interface Device for the OptIPuter, In: Future Generation Computer Systems/The International Journal of Grid Computing: Theory, Methods and Applications, Elsevier B.V., 25(2), 2008 10.1016/j.future.2008.06.016Search in Google Scholar

[44] http://www.optiputer.net Search in Google Scholar

[45] Johnson A., Sandin D., Dawe G., Qiu Z, et al., Developing the PARIS: Using the CAVE to Prototype a New VR Display, In: Proceedings of IPT 2000, (June 19–20, 2000, Ames, IA), http://www.evl.uic.edu/EVL/RESEARCH/paris.shtml Search in Google Scholar

[46] http://www.calit2.net/newsroom/release.php?id=1708 Search in Google Scholar

[47] Faris S.M., Method and System for Producing Micropolarization Panels for Use in Micropolarizing Spatially Multiplexed Images of 3-D Objects During Stereoscopic Display Processes. United States Patent 5844717, 1998, http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5844717/claims.html Search in Google Scholar

[48] Benton S.A., Slowe T.E., Kropp A.B., and Smith S.L., Micropolarizer-based multiple-viewer autostereoscopic display, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, Presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference, Vol. 3639, 1999, 76–83 10.1117/12.349367Search in Google Scholar

[49] Arisawa Mfg. Co., Ltd., 2009, http://www.arisawa.co.jp/en/product/3d.html Search in Google Scholar

[50] Kooima R., Leigh J., Johnson A., Roberts D., et al., Planetary-Scale Terrain Composition, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Computer Society, April, 2009 10.1109/TVCG.2009.43Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[51] Sandin D., Margolis T., Dawe G., Leigh J., et al., The Varrier Auto-Stereographic Display, The Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems IIX, (January 24, 2002, San Jose, CA) 10.1117/12.430818Search in Google Scholar

[52] Girado J., Real-Time 3D Head Position Tracker System with Stereo Cameras Using a Face Recognition Neural Network, PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2004 Search in Google Scholar

[53] Fukushima R., Taira K., Saishu T., Momonoi Y., et al., Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays, In: Proceedings SPIE, Vol. 7237 Search in Google Scholar

[54] Zwicker M., Matusik W., Durand F., Pfister H., Antialiasing for Automultiscopic 3D Displays, Eurographics Symposium on Rendering, 2006 10.1145/1179849.1179983Search in Google Scholar

[55] Kooima R., Prudhomme A., Schulze J., Sandin D., et al., A Multi-viewer Tiled Mutostereoscopic Virtual Reality Display, To appear in the Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, (November, 2010, Hong Kong) 10.1145/1889863.1889899Search in Google Scholar

[56] http://www.alioscopy.com/ Search in Google Scholar

[57] Girado J., Sandin D., DeFanti T., Wolf L., Real-Time Camera Based Face Detection using a modified LAMSTAR Neural Network System, In: Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2003/Conference 5015: Applications of Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing VIII, 15th Annual Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology, sponsored by The Society for Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) and The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), (January 20–24, 2003, Santa Clara, California, USA) 10.1117/12.477405Search in Google Scholar

[58] Doerr K.U., Kuester F., CGLX: A Scalable, Highperformance Visualization Framework for Networked Display Environments, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 99, 2010 10.1109/TVCG.2010.59Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[59] Ponto K., Wypych T., Doerr K., Yamaoka S., et al., VideoBlaster: A Distributed, Low-Network Bandwidth Method for Multimedia Playback on Tiled Display Systems, 11th IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, 2009, 201–206 10.1109/ISM.2009.90Search in Google Scholar

[60] http://www.necdisplay.com/NewTechnologies/UltraNarrowLCD/ Search in Google Scholar

[61] http://www.samsung.com/us/consumer/professional-displays/professional-displays/lcd/LH46MVTLBN/ZA/index.idx?pagetype=prd%5detail Search in Google Scholar

[62] http://www.mechdyne.com/integratedSolutions/software/products/CAVELib/CAVELib.htm and http://www.vrco.com/CAVELib/OverviewCAVELib.html Search in Google Scholar

[63] Rantzau D., Lang U., Ruehle R., Collaborative and Interactive Visualization in a Distributed High Performance Software Environment, In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on High Performance Computing for Graphics and Visualization, Swansea, Wales, 1996, http://www.hlrs.de/organization/vis/covise/features/opencover/ 10.1007/978-1-4471-1011-8_14Search in Google Scholar

[64] http://www.vsg3d.com/vsg%5prod%5avizo%5overview.php Search in Google Scholar

[65] http://www.sagecommons.org Search in Google Scholar

[66] http://www.calit2.net/newsroom/article.php?id=1584 http://www.youtube.com/calit2#p/search/0/pFTfZ0VtzIU (NexCAVE display of 3D model of rebar layout for new span of the San Francisco Bay Bridge http://www.youtube.com/calit2#p/search/1/9tEkHz97yNU (NexCAVE display of 3D model of Calit2 headquarters building at UC San Diego) http://www.youtube.com/calit2#p/search/2/AEjJYepZ%5FP8 (NexCAVE display of archeological dig site model) http://www.youtube.com/calit2#p/search/3/Ze5IprHtC5c (NexCAVE with 3D model of desalination plant designed at the National University of Singapore) http://www.youtube.com/calit2#p/search/4/cQP%5YhtAeyQ (NexCAVE exploration of 3D model for the holy shrine at Mecca) http://www.youtube.com/calit2#p/search/5/u96M4OhwIgA (NexCAVE Exploration of Jordan Archaeological Excavation Site) Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2011-3-18
Published in Print: 2011-3-1

© 2011 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 2.2.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.2478/s13531-010-0002-5/html
Scroll Up Arrow