Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access December 1, 2010

Metals removal during estuarine mixing of Arvand River water with the Persian Gulf water

  • Abdolreza Karbassi EMAIL logo , Gholam Nabi Bidhendi , Mohsen Saeedi and Azadeh Rastegari
From the journal Open Geosciences


In the present study, the removal of dissolved and colloidal Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn in Arvand River water during estuarine mixing with the Persian Gulf water is investigated. The flocculation process was investigated for a series of mixtures with salinities ranging from 0.48 to 30.3^. The flocculation rates were indicative of the non-conservative behavior of studied metals during estuarine mixing. Rapid flocculation in the low salinity regimes was observed. The order of the final flocculation rate of metals in the river water was as follows: Co (91.2%)> Cd (86.9%)> Zn (83%)> Cu (75.2%)> Ni (74.3%). Salinity, pH, EC and dissolved oxygen do not govern the flocculation of metals during estuarine mixing. The results of the present investigation show that estuarine processes can be considered as an effective mechanism in self purification of colloidal metals that are anthropogenically introduced into the fresh water ecosystem.

[1] DeLaune R.D., Johnson C.B., Gambrell R.P., Jugsujinda A., Export of dissolved organic carbon from a ponded freshwater marsh receiving diverted Mississippi River water, The Scientific World J., 2008, 8, 1210–1218 10.1100/tsw.2008.156Search in Google Scholar

[2] Pain G.N., Sanchez A.L., Mehlhorn T.L., The Donana ecological disaster: contamination of a world heritage estuarine marsh ecosystem with acidified pyrite mine waste, Sci. Tot. Environ., 1998, 222, 45–54 in Google Scholar

[3] Sommerfield P.J., Gee M., Warwick R.M., Benthic community structure in relation to an instantaneous discharge of waste water from a tin mine, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 1994, 28, 363–369 in Google Scholar

[4] Achterberg E.P., Herzl V.M.C., Braungardt C.B., Millward G.E., Metal behaviour in an estuary polluted by acid mine drainage: the role of particulate matter, Environ. Pollut., 2003, 121, 283–292 in Google Scholar

[5] Sholkovitz E.R., Boyle E.A., Price N.B., The Removal of Dissolved Humic Acids and Iron During Estuarine Mixing, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 1978, 40, 130–136 in Google Scholar

[6] Forstner U., Wittmann, G.T.W., Metals in Hydrocycle, Springer, Berlin, 1984 Search in Google Scholar

[7] Fox L.E., Wofsy S.C., Kinetics of Removal of Iron Colloids from Estuaries, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 1983, 47, 211–216 in Google Scholar

[8] Hunter K.A., On the estuarine mixing of dissolved substances in relation to Colloidal stability and surface properties, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 1983, 47, 467–473 in Google Scholar

[9] Zhiqing L., Jianhu Z., Jinsi C., Flocculation of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Si, Cu, Pb and Zn during estuarine mixing, Acta Oceanolog. Sin., 1987, 6, 567–576 Search in Google Scholar

[10] Featherstone A.M., Ogrady B.V., Removal of Dissolved Copper and Iron at the Freshwater-Saltwater Interface of an Acid Mine Stream, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 1997, 34, 332–337 in Google Scholar

[11] Saeedi M., Karbassi A.R., Mehrdadi N., Flocculation of dissolved Mn, Zn, Ni and Cu during the mixing of Tadjan River water with Caspian Sea water, Int. J. Environ. Stud., 2003, 60, 575–580 in Google Scholar

[12] Karbassi A.R., Nouri J., Ayaz G.O., Flocculation of Trace Metals During Mixing ofTalar River Water with Caspian Sea Water, Int. J. Environ. Res., 2007, 1, 66–73 Search in Google Scholar

[13] Saeedi M., Karbassi A.R., Estuarine capacity in removal of trace metals from contaminated river water, Southern Caspian Sea, Water Environ. J., 2008, 22, 193–198 in Google Scholar

[14] Karbassi A.R., Nouri J., Mehrdadi N., Ayaz G.O., Flocculation of heavy metals during mixing of freshwater with Caspian Sea water, Environ. Geol., 2008, 53, 1811–1816 in Google Scholar

[15] Karbassi A.R., Geochemistry of Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, V, Mn, Fe, Al and Ca in sediments of North Western part of the Persian Gulf, Int. J. Environ. Stud., 1998, 54, 205–212 in Google Scholar

[16] Lance G.N., Williams W.T., A Generalized Sorting for Computer Classifications, Nature, 1966, 212, 218 in Google Scholar

[17] Anderson A.J.B., Numerical Examination of Multivariate of Soil Samples, Math. Geol., 1971, 3, 1–14 in Google Scholar

[18] Davis J.C., Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, Wiley International, New York, 1973 Search in Google Scholar

[19] National Research Council Canada, CASS-4 Nearshore Seawater Reference Material for Trace Metals, National Institute for Measurement Standards, Ottawa, Canada, 1999 Search in Google Scholar

[20] Karbassi A.R., Nadjafpour Sh., Flocculation of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn during Estuarine mixing of river water with the Caspian Sea, Environ. Pollut., 1996, 93, 257–260 in Google Scholar

[21] Bewers J.M., MacAulay I.D., Sundby B., Trace Metals in theWaters of the Gulf of St Lawrence, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1974, 11, 939–950 10.1139/e74-092Search in Google Scholar

[22] Burton J.D., Basic Properties and Processes in Estuarine Chemistry, Academic Press, London, 1976 Search in Google Scholar

[23] Duinker J.C., Nolting R.F., Distribution model for particulate trace metals in Rhine estuary, southern bight and Dutch Wadden Sea, Netherlands J. Sea Res., 1976, 10, 71–102 in Google Scholar

[24] Biati A., Karbassi A.R., Hassani A.H., Monavari S.M., Moattar F., Role of metal species in flocculation rate during estuarine mixing, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 2010, 7, 327–336 10.1007/BF03326142Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2010-12-1
Published in Print: 2010-12-1

© 2010 Versita Warsaw

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 10.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button