Skip to content
Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access January 24, 2011

Least Squares Spectral Analysis for Detection of Systematic Behaviour of Digital Level Compensator

  • Y. Amerian and B. Voosoghi

Least Squares Spectral Analysis for Detection of Systematic Behaviour of Digital Level Compensator

Levelling is the most precise technique for height difference measurements in geomatics engineering. Various systematic errors affect precise levelling observations and reduce the precision of the observed height differences. This study investigates digital levels residual compensator error and observational method for its elimination. For this purpose the levelling data, which was collected with Zeiss DiNi 12 digital levels, was analysed. There are different statistical and spectral methods that can reveal the presence of systematic errors in levelling results. In this study, the Least Squares Spectral Analysis (LSSA) method is used. The analysis confirmed that using alternating pointing method (BFFB, FBBF) instead of usual observation routine (BFFB) will eliminate the Zeiss DiNi 12 digital levels residual compensator error from section height differences and discrepancies. In this way, it does not matter using different instruments in the forward and backward section runs and the discrepancies can be used to investigate other systematic errors.



References

Bendat J. S., and Piersol A. G., 1971, "Random Data: Analysis and Measurement procedures." John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 407 pages.Search in Google Scholar

Blais J. A. R., 1988, "Estimation and Spectral Analysis." The University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 341 pages.Search in Google Scholar

Craymer M. R., 1984, "Data series analysis and systematic effects in leveling." Technical Report No. 6, Survey Science, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario.Search in Google Scholar

Ingensand H., 2001, "The evaluation of digital Levelling techniques - limitation and new solution." Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Hönggerberg, Zurich.Search in Google Scholar

Menzel M., 1998, "The Development of Levels during the Past 25 Years, with Special Emphasis on the NI 002 Optical Geodetic Level and the DiNič11 Digital levels." Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Geschäftsbereich Geodätische Systeme, Tatzendpromenade 1a, D-07743 Jena.Search in Google Scholar

Merry C., 1998, "Basics of Levelling." University of Cape Town, GLOSS Training Course at UCT.Search in Google Scholar

Rouhiainen P., and Takalo M., 2008, "Some Calibration Results of Digital Levelling Systems." FIG Working Week 2008, Stockholm, Sweden.Search in Google Scholar

Takalo M., and Rouhiainen P., 2004, "On System Calibration of Digital Level." 14th International Conference on Engineering Surveying, Zurich, Switzerland.Search in Google Scholar

Takalo M., Rouhiainen P., Lehmuskoski P., and Saaranen V., 2002, "On the systematic behaviour of the digital levelling system Zeiss DiNi 12." FIG XXII International Congress, Washington, D. C. USA.Search in Google Scholar

Takalo M., Rouhiainen P., Lehmuskosk P., and Saaranen V., 2001, "On the calibration of a Zeiss DiNi 12." FIG Working Week 2001, Seoul, Korea.Search in Google Scholar

Vanicek P., and Wells D., 1972, "The least squares approximation and related topics." Department of Surveying Engineering, Lecture Notes No.22, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

Vosoghi B., 1994, "Investigation of systematic errors in first order levelling network of Iran." M. S. thesis in Geodesy. K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.Search in Google Scholar

Wells D. E., Vanicek P., and Pagiatakis S., 1985, "Least squares spectral analysis revisited." Technical Report No.84, Department of Surveying Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2011-1-24
Published in Print: 2011-3-1

This content is open access.

Downloaded on 22.2.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.2478/v10156-010-0005-4/html
Scroll to top button