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A Protocol to Examine the Colour Damage Profile of Bleach Containing Detergents

Protokoll zur Prüfung des Farbschädigungspotentials von Bleichsystemen in Waschmitteln
G. C. A. Luijkx, R. Hild, E. S. Krijnen, R. Lodewick, T. Rechenbach, G. Reinhardt and D. A. S. Phillips


In the development of new and improved bleach systems for detergents there is a need for a reliable and generally accepted protocol to test colour and fibre damage. We here describe a protocol to screen detergents on colour damage/fading under European wash conditions, using a recently developed set of dyed fabrics.

The test protocol has been evaluated in an inter-laboratory test and was found to be robust in the sense that it gave similar results in different laboratories. Hence the protocol described is recommended for testing the colour damage/fading properties of oxidative bleach containing detergents for the European market.


Die Entwicklung neuer und verbesserter Bleichsysteme von Waschmitteln erfordert eine zuverlässige und generell akzeptierte Prüfmethode, die eine umfassende Bewertung der Farb- und Faserschädigung erlaubt. In dieser Publikation wird eine Testmethode unter europäischen Waschbedingungen beschrieben, die auf einer Auswahl marktrepräsentativer Standardfärbungen basiert.

Die Methode wurde in einem Ringversuch evaluiert und erwies sich in dem Sinne als sehr zuverlässig, als dass sie in den verschiedenen Laboratorien zu vergleichbaren Ergebnissen führte. Die Prüfmethode ist geeignet, um Sauerstoffbleiche enthaltende Waschmittel für den europäischen Markt hinsichtlich ihres Farbschädigungspotenzials zu prüfen und zu bewerten.

Schlüsselwörter: Waschmittel; Prüfung; Farbe; Farbstoff; Bleiche

Correspondence to Dr. G.C.A. Luijkx, Unilever Research LFEGTC Olivier van Noortlaan 120 P.O. Box 114 3130 AC Vlaardingen The Netherlands Phone: +31 (0) 104 60 84 38 Fax: +31 (0) 104 60 51 66 E-mail:

Dr. Gerard C.A. Luijkx, born in 1964, studied chemical engineering at the Delft University of Technology, and obtained his PhD in organic chemistry in 1994. After that he started working as a researcher at the TNO Cleaning Techniques Research Institute. Until the end of 2003 he was manager of the Cleaning Technology department of TNO Product Testing & Consultancy BV. Since September 2004 he is working for Unilever as Evaluation Manager.

Roswitha Hild, born in 1956 studied home economics in Hohenheim. She has been working at the Research Institute Hohenstein since 1988. She is responsible for performance tests on mainly laundry detergents.

Dr. Erik S. Krijnen, born in 1964, obtained a Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry from Leiden University in 1992. After working as a project manager for TNO's Textiles and Paper and Board departments he joined Unilever in 1997. In his current position as Evaluation Manager, he is responsible for laboratory and consumer testing of fabric washing detergents.

Dr. Rainer Lodewick, born in 1947, studied chemistry at the Technische Hochschule Aachen and obtained his PhD in technical chemistry in 1977. He joined Procter & Gamble, and has held various positions in R&D. He is located at the European Technical Center in Brussels, Belgium.

Thomas Rechenbach, born in 1964, obtained his degree in textile engineering in 1992 at the Chemnitz University of Technology, major field of study was textile finishing. Since the same year he has worked for Henkel KGaA in the business unit detergents and cleansers. Today he is manager of performance and application tests in the R&D department of detergents.

Dr. Gerd Reinhardt, born in 1953, obtained a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Cologne in 1982. After one year as a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Nevada, he joined the Surfactants and Auxiliaries Division of Hoechst AG (since 1997 part of Clariant GmbH) in Frankfurt, Germany. In his current position as R&D Manager, he is responsible for Clariant's bleach development group.

Prof. Dr. Duncan A.S. Phillips, born in 1945, obtained both his BSc and PhD degrees from the University of Wales, Swansea. He joined ICI in 1969 and spent 25 years working in its Textiles Dyestuffs business. He worked in research, technical service, product management and marketing, having responsibility for the technical development of ICI/Zeneca's new Procion reactive dyes. In 1994 he was appointed Professor of Textile Chemistry at UMIST, where he teaches and heads up a research school of about 24 staff and post-graduate researchers, working in the aspects of textile chemistry and colouration.


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Received: 2004-7-6
Published Online: 2013-05-05
Published in Print: 2004-09-01

© 2004, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich