Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 31, 2013

Removal of Acid Yellow 34 from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal of Animal Bones

Entfernung von Acid Yellow 34 aus wässriger Lösung über Aktivkohle aus Tierknochen
F. K. Bangash and S. Alam


Activated charcoal prepared from the animal bones at different temperatures (600–1000°C) was characterized for surface area, pore volume and by FTIR, EDS, SEM and XRD techniques. The surfaces contained functional groups like carboxyl's and ketones which disappeared at above 800°C, favoring exposure of porous structural surfaces; resulting in enhancement of the adsorption capacity. At the high temperatures the carbon content in the charcoal increased while oxygen got decreased. Adsorption kinetics of acid yellow 34 on the prepared activated charcoal was studied at 10°C and 45°C. Bangham and Parabolic diffusion kinetic models fitted the adsorption data. The two components of the intraparticle diffusion plots suggested that the adsorption process proceeded by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, such as rate constant (kad), activation energy (DE¿), enthalpy (DH¿) and entropy (DS¿) were evaluated from the first order rate kinetics. The enthalpy of activation (DH¿) indicated that the process was endothermic in nature and its values decreased with the increase in activation temperature. The negative entropy of activation DS¿ reflect the affinity of charcoal toward dye and it decreased with the increase in activation temperature indicating that the dye molecules take more oriented position on the surface of charcoal.


Aktivkohle, hergestellt aus Tierknochen bei verschiedenen Temperaturen (600–1000°C), wurde bezüglich Oberfläche, Porenvolumen und durch FTIR-, EDS-, SEM- und XRD-Methoden charakterisiert. Die Oberfläche enthält funktionelle Gruppen, wie Carboxyle und Ketone, die oberhalb 800°C verschwinden und eine bevorzugte porenstrukturierte Oberfläche freilegen, wodurch sich eine Erhöhung der Adsorptionskapazität ergibt. Bei höheren Temperaturen steigt der Karbongehalt in der Aktivkohle an, da der Sauerstoffgehalt abnimmt. Die Adsorptionskinetik von Acid Yellow 34 über die so hergestellte Aktivkohle wurde bei 10°C and 45°C untersucht. Die Adsorptionswerte wurden an die Bangham- und parabolische Diffusionskinetikmodelle angepasst. Die zwei Komponenten der intrapartikulären Diffusionsplots weisen darauf hin, dass der Adsorptionsprozess nach einer Oberflächenadsorption und einer intrapartikulären Diffusion abläuft. Die thermodynamischen Parameter der Adsorption, wie die Geschwindigkeitskonstante (kad), Aktivierungsenergie (DE¿), Enthalpie (DH¿) und Entropie (DS¿) wurden nach der Geschwindigkeitskinetik 1. Ordnung bewertet. Die Aktivierungsenthalpie (DH¿) zeigte, dass dieser Prozess eine natürliche, endotherme Reaktion ist und ihre Werte mit Erhöhung der Aktivierungstemperatur abnehmen. Die negative Aktivierungsentropie DS¿ reflektiert die Affinität von Aktivkohle zum Farbstoff und nimmt mit Erhöhung der Aktivierungstemperatur ab, was darauf hinweist, dass die Farbstoffmoleküle eine mehr orientierende Position auf der Oberfläche einnehmen.

Dr. Fazlullah Khan Bangash, Associate Professor, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 21250, NWFP, Pakistan. E-mail:

Fazlullah Khan Bangash is Associate Professor of Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. He received M. Sc in Chemistry from Gomal University D.I. Khan, M. Phil and Ph. D in Physical Chemistry from University of Peshawar. His research interests are water pollution, surface chemistry at solid-liquid interface; activated carbon; clays and their polymeric composites; structure elucidation of adsorbents and their use in environmental applications; surfactants; oxidative stability and fortification of edible oils.

Sultan Alam received M. Sc and M. Phil from University of Peshawar, Pakistan and is currently involved in research in developing low cost adsorbents for removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions.


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Received: 2006-07-08
Published Online: 2013-03-31
Published in Print: 2006-12-01

© 2006, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich