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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 2, 2013

Structure – Property Relationships of “Gemini” Surfactants and Synergism with Hydrotropes

Struktur-Eigenschaft-Beziehungen von „Gemini“-Tensiden und ihr Synergismus mit Hydrotropen
L. Wattebled , C. Note and A. Laschewsky


Two series of cationic dimeric ((gemini)) surfactants are presented with respect to key surfactant properties, such as surface activity and micellization. The influence of the dimerization and of the spacer group are examined, in order to establish structure-property relationships. Importantly, the addition of organic anions strongly modifies the solution properties and aggregate morphology. The surface tension and critical micellar concentration can be markedly reduced compared to the dimeric surfactants in the pure state. Moreover, dimeric surfactants with an appropriate spacer group can produce viscoelastic solutions after addition of certain organic anions even when bearing only dodecyl chains, whereas no effect is observed for such mixtures involving the analogous (monomeric) surfactant. Also, first results on the use of polymerizable counterions and their polymerization in such mixtures are presented.


Für eine Gruppe kationischer „Gemini“-Tenside werden der Einfluss der Dimerisierung und der „Spacer“-Gruppe auf charakteristische Tensideigenschaften wie Oberflächenaktivität und kritische Mizellbildungskonzentration untersucht und Struktur-Eigenschaft-Beziehungen abgeleitet. Die Zugabe organischer Anionen beeinflusst die Lösungs- und Aggregationseigenschaften der Gemini-Tenside drastisch. Oberflächenspannung und kritische Mizellbildungskonzentration lassen sich so gegenüber den reinen Substanzen nochmals weiter verringern. Dabei bilden Gemini-Tenside mit geeigneten Spacer-Gruppen viskoelastische Lösungen nach Zugabe ausgewählter organischer Anionen, selbst wenn die dimeren Tenside nur über Dodecylketten verfügen. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigen die analogen „monomeren“ Tenside keinerlei solcher Effekte. Weiterhin werden erste Ergebnisse zur Verwendung polymerisierbarer Gegenionen mit Gemini-Tensiden und zur Polymerisation solcher Systeme vorgestellt.

Prof. André Laschewsky, Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung FhG-IAP, Geiselbergstr. 69, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany), Tel.: +493315681327, Fax: +493315683000. E-mail:

Laurent Wattebled was born in 1980 in Lesquin (France). He studied chemistry at the (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille) (ENSCL), part of the French (Grandes Ecoles) network, where he graduated with honours in 2003. Since October 2003, he has been working at the University of Potsdam on his PhD thesis dedicated to the synthesis and investigation of oligomeric surfactants as novel type of amphiphiles and their interactions with additives, under the supervision of Prof. A. Laschewsky.

Carine Note was born in 1979 in Saint-Saulves (France). She studied chemistry at the (Institut National des Sciences Appliquées) (INSA) in Rouen (France), graduating in 2002 after a six-month placement in the Avecia Research Center in Manchester (England). In 2003, she obtained an advanced degree in formulation science at the (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille) (France). Since November 2003, she has been working at the University of Potsdam on her PhD thesis concerning the influence of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes on nanoparticle synthesis in self-organized systems and in water, under the supervision of Prof. J. Koetz. In 2006, she joined Henkel KGaA Düsseldorf as research scientist.

Prof. André Laschewsky was born in 1958 in Koblenz (Germany). Studying chemistry in Mainz (Germany), Liverpool (UK) and Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, Ohio), he obtained his PhD degree in Mainz (Germany) in 1986. After positions as visiting scientist in the Central Research Department of E. I. Dupont de Nemours in Wilmington (Delaware) and as research associate at the Johannes-Gutenberg-University of Mainz, he became Professor for Macromolecular Science at the Université catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1992. In 2001, he was appointed as professor for Polymer Science at the University of Potsdam (Germany) and simultaneously as scientific director at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research in Potsdam-Golm (Germany), where he has been working since. He also served as visiting professor at the Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix at Namur (Belgium), Ecole Polytechnique de Palaiseau (France), and Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (France). His research interests focus on novel monomers, polymers and surfactants, with emphasis for aqueous media and interfaces, on supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology.


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Received: 2006-09-25
Published Online: 2013-04-02
Published in Print: 2007-02-01

© 2007, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich

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