Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 5, 2013

Branched Alkyl Alcohol Propoxylated Sulfate Surfactants for Improved Oil Recovery

Verzweigte Alkylalkoholpropoxysulfate für die tertiäre Erdölförderung
Y. Wu , S. Iglauer , P. Shuler , Y. Tang and W. A. Goddard

Abstract

This investigation considers branched alkyl alcohol propoxylated sulfate surfactants as candidates for chemcial enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. Results show that these anionic surfactants may be preferred candidates for EOR as they can be effective at creating low interfacial tension (IFT) at dilute concentrations, without requiring an alkaline agent or cosurfactant. In addition, some of the formulations exhibit a low IFT at high salinity, and hence may be suitable for use in more saline reservoirs. Adsorption tests onto kaolinite clay indicate that the loss of these surfactants can be comparable to or greater than other types of anionic surfactants. Surfactant performance was evaluated in oil recovery core flood tests. Selected formulations recovered 35–50% waterflood residual oil even with dilute 0.2 wt% surfactant concentrations from Berea sandstone cores.

Kurzfassung

Diese Studie untersucht verzweigte Alkylalkoholpropoxysulfate für Anwendungen in der tertiären chemischen Erdölförderung (EOR). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass diese anionischen Tenside besonders für die EOR geeignet sind, da sie die Grenzflächenspannung (IFT) ohne alkalische Zusatzmittel oder Kotenside effektiv senken. Zusätzlich weisen einige Formulierungen eine geringe IFT bei hohen Salzgehalten auf und könnten daher für den Einsatz in Reservoiren mit hohen Salzgehalten brauchbar sein. Die Adsorptionsmessungen an Kaolin machen deutlich, dass der Verlust dieser Tenside vergleichbar oder größer ist als der anderer anionischer Tenside. Die Tensidwirksamkeit wurde in Bohrkernflutungstests ermittelt. Ausgewählte Formulierungen mit einer Tensidkonzentration von nur 0,2 wt% ermöglichten eine Produktion von 35–50% des Restöls aus den Bereasandsteinkernen.


Yongchun Tang, Division of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Power, Energy Environmental Research (PEER) Center, California Institute of Technology, Covina, CA 91722, U.S.A. E-Mail:

Dr. Stefan Iglauer is a Research Associate at Imperial College London. His research interests include carbon dioxide sequestration, multi-phase flow in porous media, interfacial science, polymer technology and enhanced oil recovery. Dr. Iglauer earned his chemistry degree from the University of Paderborn and received his PhD from the Oxford Brookes University. He worked as a Postdoctoral scholar in chemistry at the California Institute of Technology from 2003–2005.

Dr. Yongfu Wu is a Research Assistant Professor with the Petroleum Engineering Program at Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T). Dr. Wu's research interests include surfactants and interfacial phenomena such as adsorption, aggregation, dispersion, emulsion, foaming, spreading and wetting, as well as development of novel surfactants and formulations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), remediation of aquifer and groundwater and other surfactant-related industrial applications. Currently his research focuses on the fundamental aspects of enhanced oil recovery by chemical technologies.

Dr. Patrick Shuler currently is on the research staff at the PEERI (Power, Environmental, and Energy Research Institute) located in Covina, CA. There he has been directing government and industry-sponsored research projects in chemical-based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) for the past 9 years. Previous to joining PEERI he worked for over 22 years in Chevron Corporation's upstream R&D organization. While there he specialized in research in chemical EOR and in other aspects of oil and gas production chemistry. Dr. Shuler earned undergraduate and graduate degrees in chemical engineering degrees from the University of Notre Dame, and the University of Colorado, respectively.

Dr. Yongchun Tang is the director of the Power, Environmental and Energy Research Institute, formerly known as the Power, Environmental and Energy Research (PEER) Center at the California Institute of Technology. He was co-founder of the PEER Center at Caltech, which has now become an independent research institute. From 1998 to 2009, Dr. Tang worked as the director of PEER Center at Caltech where he was PI and coPI for many challenging research projects funded by the DOE, NSF, and many large petroleum industries including Chevron, Shell, Exxon, BP, Conocophillips, Saudi Aramco, ENI-Agip, Total, Devon, PetroChina, and China Petroleum Corporation (Taiwan). Before joining Caltech, Dr. Tang was the senior research scientist and team leader for the molecular simulation group at Chevron. He is currently also adjunct professor at Shanghai University, Cornell University, Beijing University, the Coal Research Institute of Science Academy of China, and the Guangzhou Geochemistry Institute. He was adjunct professor at Cornell University (2001–2003). Dr. Tang got his BS in Chemistry from Shanxi University (1981) and PhD from Ohio University (1985). Dr. Tang joined Chevron in 1988 after his postdoctoral work at Harvard University and Georgia Institute of Technology.

Prof. William A. Goddard III has been a member of the Faculty of the Chemistry Department at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) since November 1964, where he is now Charles and Mary Ferkel Professor in Chemistry, Materials Science, and Applied Physics. His research career has focused on developing methods to solve problems in catalysis, materials science, and pharma from first principles (no use of empirical data). He uses multiscale multiparadigm technologies to make first principles methods practical for critical problems in catalysis, nanotechnology, fuel cells, and pharma. Thus, his work bridges between fundamentals of physics and chemistry, new developments in computer science, and practical applications. Professor Goddard has published over 816 scientific articles. See http://www.wag.caltech.edu/publications/papers/


References

1. Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P.: Enhanced oil recovery. SPE Publications (1998) ISBN: 978-1-55563-077-5.Search in Google Scholar

2. Reppert, T. R., Bragg, J. R., Wilkinson, J. R., Snow, T. M., MaerN.K., Jr. and Gale, W. W.: Second Ripley surfactant flood pilot test, proceedings SPE 20219, SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, OK, April 22–25, (1990).Search in Google Scholar

3. Garrett, H. E.: Surface active chemicals. Pergamon Press (1972).10.1016/B978-0-08-016422-9.50007-4Search in Google Scholar

4. Maerker, J. M. and Gale, W. W.: Surfactant flood processd design for Loudon. SPERE (1992) 3644.Search in Google Scholar

5. U.S. D.O.E, Commerical scale demonstration, enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Bartelsville, OKI, USA (1977).Search in Google Scholar

6. U.S. D.O.E, Big Muddy field low tension flood demonstration project. Bartelsville, OKI, USA (1979).Search in Google Scholar

7. Ferrell, H. H., Gregory, M. D., Borah, M. T.: Progress report: Big Muddy field low-tension flood demonstration project with emphasis on injectivity and mobility, proceedings SPE 12682, SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, OK, April 15–18 (1984).Search in Google Scholar

8. Ferrell, H. H., King, D. W. and Sheely, C. Q.Jr.: Analysis of low-tension pilot at Big Muddy field. WY, SPEFE (1988) 351321.Search in Google Scholar

9. Huh, C., Lange, E. A. and Cannella, W. J.: Polymer retention in porous media, proceedings SPE 20235, SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, OK, April 22–25 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

10. Cole, E. L.: An evaluation of the Robinson M-1 commerical scale demonstration project of enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood, Report DOE/BC/10830-10, US DOE. Bartlesville, OK, USA, December (1988).Search in Google Scholar

11. Cole, E. L.: An evaluation of the Big Muddy field low-tension flood demonstration project, Report DOE/BC/10830-9, US DOE. Bartlesville, OK, USA, December (1988).Search in Google Scholar

12. Pitts, M. J.: Recent Field Work in the United States with Alkali-Surfactant, proceedings of the NSF Workshop. Use of Surfactants for Improved Petroleum Recovery, 22–23 October (2001).Search in Google Scholar

13. Taugbol, K., van Ly, T. and Austad, T.: Chemical flooding of oil reservoirs. 2. Dissociative surfactant-polymer interaction with a positive effect on oil recovery, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 103 (1995) 83. 10.1016/0927-7757(95)03233-4Search in Google Scholar

14. Austad, T.: A Review of Retention Mechanisms of Ethoxylated Sulfonates in Reservoir Cores, proceedings SPE 25174, SPE Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. New Orleans, 2–5 March (1993).Search in Google Scholar

15. Knaggs, E. A.et al.: Petroleum Sulfonate Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recover Systems, proceedings SPE Paper 6006, SPE Symposium. New Orleans, LA, 3–6 October, (1976).Search in Google Scholar

16. Kumar, A., Neale, G. H. and Hornof, V.: Pulp. Pap. Can.85 (1984) 180183.Search in Google Scholar

17. Shankar, P. K., Bae, J. H. and Enick, R. M.: Salinity Tolerance and Solution Property Correlations of Petroleum Sulfonate-Cosurfactant Blends, proceedings SPE 10600, presented at SPE Symposium on Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry, Dallas, 25–27 January (1982).Search in Google Scholar

18. Barakat, Y., Fortney, L. N., Schechter, R. S., Wade, W. H. and Yiv, S.: Alpha Olefin Sulfonates for Enhanced Oil Recovery, proceedings 2nd European Symposium on EOR. Paris, 5–10 November, (1982).Search in Google Scholar

19. Austad, T. and Strand, S.: Chemical Flooding of Oil Reservoirs 4. Effects of temperature and pressure on the middle phase solubilization parameters close to optimum flood conditions, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects108 (1996) 243252. 10.1016/0927-7757(95)03406-4Search in Google Scholar

20. Mannhardt, K., Schramm, L. L. and Novosad, J. J.: Adsorption of anionic and amphoteric foam-forming surfactants on different rock types, Coll. and Surf. A68 (1992) 3753. 10.1016/0166-6622(92)80146-SSearch in Google Scholar

21. Michels, A. M., Djojosoeparto, R. S., Haas, H., Mattern, R. B., van der Weg, P. B. and Schulte, W. M.: Enhanced Waterflooding Design with Dilute Surfactant Concentration for North Sea Conditions. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 1996.10.2118/35372-PASearch in Google Scholar

22. Bansal, V. K., Shah, D. O. and O'Connell, J. P.: Influence of alkyl chain length compatibility on microemulsion structure and solubilization. J. Colloid Interface Science75 (1980) 462. 10.1016/0021-9797(80)90471-3Search in Google Scholar

23. Baviere, M., Ruaux, E. and Defives, D.: Sulfonate retention by kaolinite at high pH: Effect of inorganic anions, proceedings SPE 21031, SPE International Chemistry Symposium. Anaheim, CA, USA, 20–22th February (1991).Search in Google Scholar

24. Andrews, V.et al.: Preliminary Studies of the Behavior of Some Commercially Available Surfactants in Hydrocarbon-Brine-Mineral Systems, proceedings of the third European Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery, in Bournemouth, U.K., edited by F.John Fayers, 6280 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

25. Austad, T., Ekrann, St., FjeldeI. and Taugbøl, K.: Chemical Flooding of Oil Reservoirs Part 9. Dynamic Adsorption of Surfactant onto Sandstone cores from Injection Water with and Without Polymer Present, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects 127 (1997) 6982.Search in Google Scholar

26. Skauge, A. and Palmgren, O.: Phase Behavior and Solution Properties of Ethoxylated Anionic Surfactants, proceedings SPE 18499, presented at SPE Oilfield Chemistry Symposium. Houston, February 8–10 (1989).Search in Google Scholar

27. Wang, Y.et al.: Surfactants Oil Displacement System in High Salinity Formations: Research and Application, proceedings SPE 70047, presented at SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference. Midland, Texas, 15–16 May (2001).Search in Google Scholar

28. Osterioh, W. T. and Jante, M. J.: Surfactant-Polymer Flooding with Anionic PO/EO Surfactant Microemulsions Containing Polyethylene Glycol Additives, proceedings SPE/DOE 24151, presented the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, 22–24 April (1992).Search in Google Scholar

29. Balzer, D. and Kosswig, K.: Die Phasen-Inversions-Temperatur als Auswahlkriterium für Tenside bei der tertiären Erdölgewinnung, Tenside Surfactants Detergents. 16 (1979) 256.Search in Google Scholar

30. Stryker, A.: Selection and Design of Ethoxylated Carboxylates for Chemical Flooding, project report DOE FC22-83FE60149, NIPER-449, DE90000213, January (1990).10.2172/5111005Search in Google Scholar

31. Bansel, B. B., Hornof, V. and Neale, G. H.: Can. J. Chem. Eng.57 (1979) 203210. 10.1002/cjce.5450570212Search in Google Scholar

32. Halbert, W. G.: Miscible Waterflooding Using a Phosphate Ester Solubilizer, proceedings SPE 3697, California Regional SPE Meeting. Los Angeles, 4–5 November (1971).Search in Google Scholar

33. Wu, W. J., Vaskas, A., Delshad, M., Pope, G. A. and Sepehrnoori, K.: Design and Optimization of Low-Cost Chemical Flooding, proceedings SPE/DOE 35355, Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery. Tulsa, OK, 21–24 April (1996).Search in Google Scholar

34. Iglauer, S., Wu, Y., Shuler, P. J., Tang, Y. and Goddard, W. A.: Alkyl Polyglycoside Surfactant – Alcohol Cosolvent Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects339 (2009) 4859. 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.01.015Search in Google Scholar

35. Hill, K., von Rybinski, W. and Stoll, G. (editors): Alkyl Polyglucosides, VCH, (1997), ISBN: 9783527294510.10.1002/9783527614691Search in Google Scholar

36. Balzer, D. and Lüders, H. (editors): Nonionic Surfactants, Alkyl Polyglycosides, Surfactant Science Series, 91, Marcel Dekker (2000).Search in Google Scholar

37. Jayanti, S., Britton, L. N., Dwarakanath, V. and Pope, G. A.: Laboratory evaluation of custom-designed surfactants to remediate NAPL source zones, Environ. Sci. Technol.36 (2002) 54915497. 10.1021/es020566iSearch in Google Scholar

38. Ooi, K. C., Dwarakanath, V., Holzmer, F. J. and Jackson, R. E.: Recent advances in surfactant remediation of contaminated soils, proceedings SPE 52732, SPE/EPA Environmental Conference. Austin, TX, USA, 1–3rd March (1999).Search in Google Scholar

39. Aoudia, M., Wade, W. H. and Weerasooriya, U.: Optimum microemulsions formulated with propoxylated Guerbet alcohol and propoxylated tridecyl alcohol sodium sulfates, J. Dispersion Sci. Technol.16 (1996) 115135. 10.1080/01932699508943664Search in Google Scholar

40. Minana-Perez, M., Gracia, A., Lachaise, J. and Salager, J.: Solubilization of polar oils with extended surfactants. J. Colloids Surf. A100 (1995) 217224. 10.1016/0927-7757(95)03186-HSearch in Google Scholar

41. Rosen, M. J., Wang, H., Shen, P. and Zhu, Y.: Ultralow interfacial tension for enhanced oil recovery at very low surfactant concentrations. Langmuir21 (2005) 37493756. 10.1021/la0400959Search in Google Scholar PubMed

42. Sunwoo, C. K. and Wade, W. H.: Optimal surfactant structures for cosurfactant-free microemulsion systems, I. C16 and C14 Guerbet alcohol hydrophobes. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology13, 5 (1992) 491514. 10.1080/01932699208943330Search in Google Scholar

43. Varadaraj, R., Bock, J., Valint, P., Zushma, S. and Thomas, R.: Fundamental interfacial properties of alkyl-branched sulfate and ethoxy sulfate surfactants derived from Guerbet alcohols. 1. Surface and instantaneous interfacial tensions. J. Phys. Chem.95 (1991) 1671. 10.1021/j100157a033Search in Google Scholar

44. Varadaraj, R., Bock, J., Valint, P., Zushma, S. and Brons, N. J.: Fundamental interfacial properties of alkyl-branched sulfate and ethoxy sulfate surfactants derived from Guerbet alcohols. 2. Dynamic surface tension. J. Phys. Chem.95 (1991) 1677. 10.1021/j100157a034Search in Google Scholar

45. Varadaraj, R., Bock, J., Valint, P., Zushma, S. and Brons, N. J.: Fundamental interfacial properties of alkyl-branched sulfate and ethoxy sulfate surfactants derived from Guerbet alcohols. 3. Dynamic contact angle and adhesion tension. J. Phys. Chem.95 (1991) 1679. 10.1021/j100157a035Search in Google Scholar

46. Varadaraj, R., Bock, J., Valint, P. and Zushma, S.: Thermodynamics of adsorption and micellization in linear and Guerbet sulfate and ethoxy sulfate surfactants. J. Phys. Chem.95 (1991) 1682. 10.1021/j100157a036Search in Google Scholar

47. Zhang, D. L., Shunhua, L., Puerto, M., Miller, C. A. and Hirasaki, G. J.: Wettability alteration and spontaneous imbibition in oil-wet carbonate formations, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering52 (2006) 213226. 10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.009Search in Google Scholar

48. Seethepalli, A., Adibhatla, B. and Mohanty, K. K.: Physicochemical interactions during surfactant flooding of fractured carbonate reservoirs. SPEJ9, 4 (2004) 411418. 10.2118/89423-PASearch in Google Scholar

49. Adibhatla, B. and Mohanty, K. K.: Oil recovery from fractured carbonates by surfactant-aided gravity drainage: laboratory experiments and mechanistic simulations, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering (2008) 119130.Search in Google Scholar

50. Kumar, K., Dao, E. K. and Mohanty, K. K.: Atomic force microscopy study of wettability alteration by surfactants. SPEJ (2008) 137145.Search in Google Scholar

51. Mohanty, K. K.: Dilute surfactant methods for carbonate formations, US-DOE final report, DE-FC26-02NT 15322, 2006. 10.2172/882209Search in Google Scholar

52. Kelkar, M.: Exploitation and optimization of reservoir performance in Hunton formation, Oklahoma, US-DOE annual technical report, DE-FC26-00NT15125 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

53. Cayias, J. L., Schechter, R. S. and Wade, W. H.: The Measurement of Low Interfacial Tension via the Spinning Drop Technique, section 17, Surfactant Applications (1977).Search in Google Scholar

54. Mitchell, D. J. and Ninham, B. W.: Micelles, vesicles and microemulsions, Journal of the Chemical Society. Faraday Transactions vesicles and microemulsions, Journal of the Chemical Society. Faraday Transactions: Molecular and Chemical Physics, 77 (1981) 601629.Search in Google Scholar

55. Strey, R. and Jonströmer, M.: Role of Medium-Chain Alcohols in Interfacial Films of Nonionic Microemulaions. Journal of Physical Chemistry96 (1992) 45374542. 10.1021/j100190a075Search in Google Scholar

56. DeGennes, P. and Taupin, C.: Microemulsions and the flexibility of oil-water interfaces, Journal of Physical Chemistry86 (1982) 22942304. 10.1021/j100210a011Search in Google Scholar

57. Kahlweit, M., Busse, G. and Faulhaber, B.: Preparing Microemulsions with Alkyl Monoglucosides and the Role of n-Alcohols, Langmuir11 (1995) 33823387. 10.1021/la00009a019Search in Google Scholar

58. Sabatini, D. A., Acosta, E. and Harwell, J. H.: Linker Molecules in Surfactant Mixtures. Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science8 (2003) 316326. 10.1016/S1359-0294(03)00082-7Search in Google Scholar

59. Goddard, W. A., Tang, Y., Shuler, P. J., Blanco, M., Jang, S. S., Lin, S. T., Maiti, P., Wu, Y., Iglauer, S. and Zhang, X.: Lower Cost Methods for Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) via Surfactant Flooding, DOE Project DE-FC 26-01BC15362, Final Report, September (2004).Search in Google Scholar

60. Wu, Y., Shuler, P. J., Blanco, M., Tang, Y. and Goddard, W. A.: A Study of Branched Alcohol propoxylate Sulfate Surfactants for Improved Oil Recovery, proceedings SPE 95404, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Dallas, TX, USA, 9–12 October (2005).Search in Google Scholar

61. Iglauer, S., Wu, Y., Shuler, P. J., Blanco, M., Tang, Y. and Goddard, W. A.: Alkylpolyglycoside Surfactants for Improved Oil Recovery, proceedings SPE/DOE 89472, SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Tulsa, OK, April 17–21 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

62. Iglauer, S., Wu, Y., Shuler, P. J., Tang, Y., Blanco, M. and Goddard, W. A.: The influence of Alcohol Co-surfactants on the Interfacial Tensions of Alkylglycoside Surfactant Formulations vs. n-Octane, proceedings of the ACS 227th National Meeting, Division of Petroleum Chemistry. Anaheim, CA, USA (2004).Search in Google Scholar

63. Healy, R. N. and Reed, R. L.: Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding. Academic Press (1977).Search in Google Scholar

64. Shinoda, K. and Friberg, S.: Emulsion & Solubilization, John Wiley & Sons (1986).Search in Google Scholar

65. Huh, C.: Equilibrium of a microemulsion that coexists with oil or brine. SPEJ23 (1983) 829858. 10.2118/10728-PASearch in Google Scholar

66. Shinoda, K.: The correlation between the dissolution state of nonionic surfactant and the type of dispersion stabilized with the surfactant, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science24 (1967) 4. 10.1016/0021-9797(67)90270-6Search in Google Scholar

67. Tang, Y., Shuler, P. J., Wu, Y. and Iglauer, S.: Chemical System for Improved Oil Recovery, US-Patent Application 20060046948 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

68. Wu, Y., Iglauer, S., Shuler, P. J., Tang, Y., Blanco, M. and Goddard, W. A.: Synergistic Effect of Alkyl Polyglycoside and Sorbitan Mixtures on Lowering Interfacial Tension and Enhancing Oil Recovery, proceedings of the ACS 227th National Meeting, Division of Petroleum Chemistry. Anaheim, CA, USA 2004.Search in Google Scholar

69. Cases, J. M. and Villieras, F.: Thermodynamic model of ionic and nonionic surfactants adsorption-abstraction on heterogenous surfaces. Langmuir8, 5 (1992) 12511264. 10.1021/la00041a005Search in Google Scholar

70. Tiberg, F., Joensson, B., Tang, J. and Lindman, B.: Ellipsometry studies of the self-assembly of nonionic surfactants at the silica-water interface: equilibrium aspects. Langmuir10, 7 (1994) 22942300. 10.1021/la00019a045Search in Google Scholar

71. Luciani, L. and Denoyel, R.: Adsorption of polydisperse surfactants on solid surfaces: an ellipsometric study. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science188, 1 (1997) 7580. 10.1006/jcis.1996.4724Search in Google Scholar

72. Bohmer, M., Koopal, L. K., Janssen, R., Lee, E. M., Thomas, R. K. and Rennie, A. R.: Adsorption of nonionic surfactants on hydrophilic surfaces. An experimental and theoretical study on association in the adsorbed layer. Langmuir8, 9 (1992) 22282239. 10.1021/la00045a027Search in Google Scholar

73. Manne, S., Schaeffer, T. E., Huo, Q., Hansma, P. K., Morse, D., Stucky, G. D. and Aksay, I. A.: Gemini surfactants at solid-liquid interfaces: control of interfacial aggregate geometry. Langmuir13, 24 (1997) 63826387. 10.1021/la970070sSearch in Google Scholar

74. Hanna, H. S. and Somasundaran, P.: Physico-chemical aspects of adsorption at solid/liquid interfaces. II: Mahogany sulfonate/berea sandstone. kaolinite, in D. O.Shah, R. S.Schechter (eds.) Improved oil recovery surfactant polymer flooding (1977).Search in Google Scholar

75. Yang, C. Z., Yan, H. K., Li, G. Z., Cui, G. Z. and Yuan, H.: Fundamental and advances in combined chemical flooding (in Chinese), China Petroleum Press (2002).Search in Google Scholar

76. Mukerjee, P. and Anavil, A.: Adsorption of ionic surfactants to porous glass. Exclusion of micelles and other solutes form adsorbed layers and the problem of adsorption maxima, ACS Symposium Series8 (1974), 107128. 10.1021/symposiumSearch in Google Scholar

77. Barakat, Y., El-Mergawy, S. A., El-Zein, S. M. and Mead, A. I.: Adsorption of alkylbenzene sulfonates onto mineral surfaces. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology2, 3 (1995) 162166.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2009-10-04
Published Online: 2013-04-05
Published in Print: 2010-05-01

© 2010, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich

Downloaded on 30.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.3139/113.110064/html
Scroll Up Arrow