Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 11, 2013

Resource Saving by Training – How much can be Saved in Manual Dishwashing?

Ressourceneinsparung durch Training – Wie viel kann beim Handgeschirrspülen eingespart werden?
N. Fuss and R. Stamminger

Abstract

Automatic dishwashing has been optimised in manifold ways during the last decades. But it is also necessary to optimise manual dishwashing, because almost every household still washes up at least a few items by hand. A procedure based on an experimental multi-factorial laboratory study was developed to wash up a specified number of dishes with good cleanliness and an optimum water consumption as results. This procedure was then translated into generalised dishwashing tips – called Best Practice Tips. These tips were used to run two comparative consumer laboratory studies: the first part of each study investigated the everyday dishwashing behaviour and resource consumption of consumers. The second part studied the behaviour and the resource consumption after a training on the Best Practice Tips. The comparison showed that with a larger number of dishes, relevant amounts of resources of energy and water can be saved, whereas with a smaller number of dishes, no significant reduction was found. This is possibly due to a different optimum for washing up only a few items.

Kurzfassung

Das Geschirrspülen in der Maschine wurde in den letzten Jahrzehnten in vielfacher Weise optimiert. Da jedoch in fast jedem Haushalt immer noch zumindest einige Teile von Hand abgewaschen werden, ist es auch nötig, das Handgeschirrspülen zu optimieren. Auf Basis einer multi-faktoriellen Laborstudie wurde eine Prozedur entwickelt, um eine definierte Anzahl an Geschirrteilen mit einem guten Reinigungsergebnis und einem optimierten Wasserverbrauch abzuwaschen. Auf Basis dieser Prozedur wurden Spültipps definiert – die sogenannten Best Practice Tips. Diese Tipps wurden dazu benutzt, um zwei Laborstudien durchzuführen: Im ersten Teil jeder Studie wurde das alltägliche Verhalten und der Ressourcenverbrauch beim Handgeschirrspülen erfasst. Im zweiten Teil jeder Studie wurde das Verhalten und der Ressourcenverbrauch nach einem Training zu den Best Practice Tips untersucht. Der Vergleich zeigte, dass mit größeren Geschirrmengen relevante Mengen an Wasser und Energie eingespart werden konnten. Hingegen konnte bei kleineren Geschirrmengen keine signifikante Reduzierung des Ressourcenverbrauchs festgestellt werden. Dies liegt möglicherweise daran, dass es für kleine Geschirrmengen eine andere optimale Art und Weise gibt, von Hand abzuspülen.


Dipl. oecotroph. Natalie Fuss, Household and Appliance Technology Section, University of Bonn, Germany, Nussallee 5, D-53115 Germany, Tel.: +49-228735955. E-Mail:

Dipl. oecotroph. Natalie Fuss studied nutritional science and home economics from 2002 to 2007 at the University of Bonn. In her diploma thesis she applied a quality management system to an E-Learning project for students. Having finished the studies with diploma in 2007, she has started working as a scientific assistant in the household and appliance technology section of the University of Bonn. In her PhD thesis, she is investigating the manual dishwashing process regarding the optimisation of resource consumption.

Prof. Dr. Rainer Stamminger, University of Bonn. After 17 years of practical experience in the development of washing machines and dishwasher with AEG Hausgeräte, Germany Rainer Stamminger was promoted in 2002 as professor for appliance and process engineering at University of Bonn. Main areas of research at University are consumer behaviour of homework with and without using appliances, new products or features, smart appliances, robots for household application and questions of sustainability of housekeeping.


References

1. Aid Infodienst: Arbeitsanleitung „Geschirr spülen von Hand“. URL http://www.aid.de/downloads/handspuelen.pdf [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

2. BC Hydro: Be Efficient When Washing Dishes. URL http://www.bchydro.com/guides_tips/green-your-home/appliances_guide/washing_dishes.html (2009). [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

3. Berkholz, P., Stamminger, R., Wnuk, G., Owens, J. and Bernarde, S.: Manual dishwashing habits: an empirical analysis of UK consumers. International Journal of Consumer Studies34, 2 (2010) 235242. 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2009.00840.x Search in Google Scholar

4. CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization): EN 50242/EN 60346. Electric dishwashers for household use – Methods for measuring the performance (2008). Search in Google Scholar

5. Cicerone, R. J.: Human forcing of climate change: Easing up on the gas pedal In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/97/19/10304.full (2008) [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

6. Deutscher Hausfrauen-Bund e. V.: Beitrag des Geschirrspülens zur Nachhaltigkeit – neue Ergebnisse. URL: http://www.forum-waschen.de/doc/files/15760/STAMMINGER_Wie%20sp%fclt%20der%20Verbraucher%20Ergebnisse%20der%20Verbraucherumfrage.pdf Search in Google Scholar

7. „Das bisschen Haushalt …“ – so erledigen sie lästige Aufgaben schneller. URL http://www.kleinanzeigen-landesweit.de/cms/haushalt-bewaeltigen.html [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

8. Forum Waschen: Sechs goldene Regeln zum Spülen per Hand. URL http://www.forum-waschen.de/e-trolley/page_8754/index.html [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

9. Fuss, N., Bornkessel, S., Mattern, T., Stamminger, R.: Are resource savings in manual dishwashing possible? Consumers applying Best Practice Tips. International Journal of Consumer Studies.95 (2011) 194200. 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00972.x Search in Google Scholar

10. Fuss, N., Stamminger, R.: Manual Dishwashing – How can it be optimized. Tensids, Surfactants, Detergents.6 (2010) 4547. Search in Google Scholar

11. Geschirr spülen per Hand – aber richtig. URL http://www.kochen-essen-wohnen.de/geschirr-spuelen-per-hand.html [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

12. Natural Resources Defense Council: Efficient Appliances Save Energy – and Money. Consumers get lower utility bills, and we all get a cleaner environment. URL http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/fappl.asp (2004). [Accessed 16 August 2010] Search in Google Scholar

13. Peterson, J.: 5 More Eco Friendly Tips for Washing Dishes by Hand. If you can't afford a dishwasher, these tips can help you green your dishes. URL http://planetgreen.discovery.com/home-garden/hand-washing-dishes-tips.html (2008). [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

14. Reichmann, T.: Maximizing Hand Dishwashing Efficiency in 5 Easy Steps. URL http://planetgreen.discovery.com/home-garden/efficient-handwashing-dishes.html (2008). [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

15. Richter, C. P.: Automatic dishwashers: efficient machines or less efficient consumer habits? International Journal of Consumer Studies34 (2010) 228234. Search in Google Scholar

16. Rosenberg, A. A., Fogarty, M. J., Sissenwine, M. P., Beddington, J. R. and Shepherd, J. G.: Achieving sustainable use of renewable resources. Science, New Series262 (2009) 828829. Search in Google Scholar

17. Simpfendörfer, D.: Hauswirtschaft nach Lernfeldern. Wohnen und Reinigen. 4. Auflage, Hamburg: Verlag Handwerk und Technik GmbH (2007). Search in Google Scholar

18. Soap and Detergent Association: Facts About Dishwashing: Energy Management in Hand Dishwashing. URL http://www.cleaning101.com/dishwash/dishwashing_fact_sheet3.cfm [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

19. Soap and Detergent Association: Facts about Dishwashing. Hand Dishwashing Procedures. URL http://www.cleaning101.com/dishwash/dishwashing_fact_sheet2.cfm [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

20. Stamminger, R.: Daten und Fakten zum Geschirrspülen mit der Hand und in der Maschine. SÖFW-Journal3 (2006) 132. Search in Google Scholar

21. Tips for green dishwashing. URL http://cottagelife.com/13763/environment/tips-environment/tips-for-greener-dishwashing [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

22. Waterwise: Reducing Water Wastage in the UK. URL http://www.waterwise.org.uk/reducing_water_wastage_in_the_uk/house_and_garden/washing_up_2.html [Accessed 31 August 2009] Search in Google Scholar

23. World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Oxford University Press (1987) 393. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2011-03-01
Published Online: 2013-04-11
Published in Print: 2011-09-01

© 2011, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich