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Adsorption Studies of Basic Green 4 from Aqueous Solution on Ca2+ Exchanged Clay

Untersuchung der Adsorption von Malachitgrün aus wässriger Lösung auf Ca2+ ausgetauschten Tonerden
F. K. Bangash, S. Alam and M. Khan


The adsorption of basic green 4 from aqueous solution on calcium exchanged clay (Attock-Ca and Swat-Ca) was studied. Clays were first purified and activated with H2SO4 and then exchanged with Ca2+ ions. Clay was characterized by BET surface area, XRD and SEM/EDS. The adsorption kinetic at 298 K and 306 K showed that the first order models were applied to the data. The rate constant increased with the rise in temperature of adsorption/activation. Thermodynamic properties (ΔE, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) for the adsorption process were calculated. Positive values of ΔH showed that the adsorption of basic green 4 is endothermic. Positive values of ΔS reflected the increase in the disorder of the system at the solid-solution interface during adsorption. The Gibbs free energy, which is the driving force for adsorption is negative indicating spontaneous adsorption. Freundlich's and Langmuir's models described the equilibrium adsorption study and found to fit the experimental data.


Es wurde die Adsorption von Malachitgrün aus wässriger Lösung auf Ca2+ ausgetauschten Tonerden (Attock-Ca und Swat-Ca) untersucht. Die Tonerden wurden zuerst gereinigt und mit H2SO4 aktiviert. Dann wurden sie einem Austausch mit Ca2+-Ionen unterzogen. Diese Tonerden wurden mit der BET-Methode, der Röntgenbeugung (XRD) und im Rasterelektronenmikroskop (SEM) mittels Energiedisperser Röntgenanalyse (EDX) charakterisiert. Die Adsorptionskinetik bei 298 K und bei 306 K zeigte, dass die Daten einem Modell erster Ordnung gehorchen. Die Geschwindigkeitskonstante steigt mit zunehmender Adsorptions- bzw. Aktivierungstemperatur. Die thermodynamischen Eigenschaften (ΔE, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) des Adsorptionsvorgangs wurden berechnet. Die positiven Werte für ΔH zeigen, dass die Adsorption von Malachitgrün endotherm ist. Die positiven Werte für ΔS lassen auf eine zunehmende Unordnung des Systems an der Fest-Flüssig-Grenzfläche während der Adsorption schließen. Die Gibbs-Energie ΔG, die die treibende Kraft der Adsorption ist, ist negativ, was auf eine spontane Adsorption hinweist. Die experimetellen Ergebnisse passen sowohl zum Freundlich- als auch zum Langmuir-Modell.

Dr. Sultan Alam, Chairman, Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir (L), Pakistan. E-Mail:

Dr. Fazlullah Khan Bangash is Professor in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar. His research interest includes characterization of adsorbents, water pollution and surface chemistry at the solid liquid interface.

Dr. Sultan Alam is Assistant Professor in Physical Chemistry, University of Malakand, at Chakdara, Dir (L), Pakistan. His research interest includes, conversion of low cost precursors into activated carbon like agricultural waste material, fast growing wood and animal bones, regeneration of industrial spent carbon, characterization of adsorbents by pH, moisture content, ash content, surface area (BET, DR, BJH, and Langmuir), pore size distribution, FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDS, surface chemistry at solid-liquid interface i.e. Activated carbon and Clays.

Mr. Mashooq Khan is Ph.D. research scholar in the Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Pakistan. His field of specialization is Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. He is working in the research group of Dr. Sultan Alam.


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Received: 2011-03-29
Published Online: 2013-04-11
Published in Print: 2011-09-01

© 2011, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich