Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 11, 2013

Aquatic Risk Assessment of Enzymes used in Household Detergents

Risikobewertung für Gewässer, die Enzyme aus Haushaltswaschmitteln enthalten
T. Madsen, T. Slothuus, G. I. Petersen and D. Rasmussen

Abstract

Exposure and effect assessment including risk characterisation of enzymes used in household detergents were conducted. Predicted environmental concentrations were calculated by use of traditional methods and detailed transport and fate modelling. Predicted no effect concentrations were derived from the results of ecotoxicological studies conducted with subtilisin and other available information on the acute and chronic aquatic toxicity. Risk characterisation ratios were defined as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted no effect concentration. Risk characterisation ratios were calculated for fresh and marine water and were found to be between 0.0002 and 0.06, i.e. all well below 1. This shows that under the given conditions, the use of enzymes in household detergents does not present a risk to the aquatic environment.

Kurzfassung

Es wurde eine Untersuchung der Exposition und Einwirkung, einschließlich einer Risikobewertung von Enzymen in Haushaltswaschmitteln, durchgeführt. Die Berechnung der vorhergesagten Konzentrationen in der Umwelt wurde sowohl mit traditionellen Methoden und als auch mit einem reaktiven Stofftransportmodell durchgeführt. Die Konzentration, die keine Einwirkung auf aquatische Organismen hat, wurde aus den verfügbaren Daten der ökotoxikologischen Studien mit Subtilisin und anderen zugänglichen Informationen über die akute und chronische Toxizizität abgeleitet. Die Risikoquotienten wurden als das Verhältnis zwischen der vorhergesagten Konzentration in der Umwelt und der Konzentration definiert, bei der keine Wirkung in der Umwelt zu erwarten ist (PNEC). Die Risikoquotienten wurden für Süß- und Meerwasser berechnet. Sie lagen alle zwischen 0.0002 und 0.06, d.h. sie waren alle deutlich kleiner als 1. Diese Bewertung zeigt, dass die Verwendung von Enzymen in Haushaltswaschmitteln unter den gegebenen Voraussetzungen kein Risiko für die aquatische Umwelt darstellt.


Torben Madsen, DHI, Department of Environment and Toxicology, Hoersholm, Denmark, DHI, Agern Allé 5, DK-2970 Hoersholm, Denmark, Tel.: +45-45169200, Fax: +45-45169292. E-Mail:

Torben Madsen, Ph.D. in environmental microbiology, is Head of department at DHI. He is working with environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals, which includes ecotoxicological studies of surfactants and other detergent ingredients.

Tina Slothuus, M.Sc. in biology, is ecotoxicologist and GLP study director at DHI. She is working with experimental studies of aquatic toxicity and environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals, including surfactants and other detergent ingredients.

Gitte Ingelise Petersen, Ph.D. in bioaccumulation and ecotoxicology, is senior biologist and GLP study director at DHI. She is working with experimental studies of long-term chronic effects of chemicals, which include studies with early life stages of fish and studies of endocrine disrupting effects.

Dorte Rasmussen, Ph.D. in chemical engineering, is senior chemical engineer at DHI. She is working with exposure assessment of chemicals, including exposure scenarios in relation to REACH, and computer modelling of the environmental fate of chemicals.


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Received: 2011-01-03
Published Online: 2013-04-11
Published in Print: 2011-09-01

© 2011, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich