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Immobilized Micro-Organism in Mesoporous Activated Carbon for Treatment of Tannery Waste Water

Immobilisierte Mikroorganismen auf mesoporösen, aktivierten Kohlenstoff für die Behandlung von Gerbereiabwässern
Ganesan Sekaran, S. Karthikeyan, Asit Baran Mandal and Vinod Kumar Gupta


Chemo-Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation (CAACO) system was used for the treatment of tannery waste water. It employs activated carbon-immobilised sulphate reducing bacteria for the removal of dissolved organics in wastewater under oxidizing environment. The wastewater characteristics such as COD (1689 mg/L), BOD (377 mg/L), sulphate (915 mg/L) and sulphide (184 mg/L) were applied at an hydraulic loading rate of 0.7376 m3/m3/day and surface loading rate of 0.2438 m3/m2/day to CAACO reactor at 30°C and at atmospheric pressure. The removal of COD, BOD, sulphide and sulphate was 87%, 96%, 100% and 40% respectively after 2 hours of oxidation. The oxidation of dissolved organics in wastewater was accomplished by passing air at flow rate 3 L/min and at pressure 0.5 kg/cm2 through CAACO reactor. The effect of variables COD loading, O2/COD, O2/(COD-BODL), COD/S2–, (COD-BODL)/S2– and [(COD-BODL)i–(COD-BODL)e]/S2– on rate and percentage removal of COD from tannery wastewater was determined.


Ein chemo-autotrophes Oxidationssystem mit aktiviertem Kohlenstoff (Chemo-Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation (CAACO) system) wurde zur Behandlung von Gerbereiabwässern untersucht. Das System nutzt an aktiviertem Kohlenstoff immobilisierte, sulfatreduzierende Bakterien, um die in Abwässern gelösten organischen Verbindungen unter Oxidationsbedingungen zur entfernen. Für Abwässer charakteristische Größen wie COD (1689 mg/L), BOD (377 mg/L), Sulfat (915 mg/L) und Sulfid (184 mg/L) wurden bei einer hydraulischen Ladegeschwindigkeit von 0.7376 m3/m3/Tag und einer Oberflächenbeladunggeschwindigkeit von 0.2438 m3/m2/Tag in dem CAACO-Reaktor unter atmosphärischem Druck bei 30°C eingestellt. Nach zweistündiger Oxidation betrug die Entferung von COD, BOD, Sulfid und Sulfat 87%, 96%, 100% bzw. 40%. Die Oxidation der im Abwasser gelösten organischen Verbindungen wurde begleitet von durch den CAACO-Reaktor strömender Luft, deren Geschwindigkeit bei einem Druck von 0,5 kg/cm2 3 L/min betrug. Der Einfluss der COD-Beladung, sowie der der Verhältnisse O2/COD, O2/(COD-BODL), COD/S2−, (COD-BODL)/S2− und [(COD-BODL)i–(COD-BODL)e]/S2− auf die Geschwindigkeit und die prozentuale COD-Entfernung aus den Gerbereiabwässern wurde bestimmt.

Dr. G. Sekaran, Chief Scientist & Head, Environmental Technology Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600020, India, Tel.: +91-044-24452491, Fax: +91-044-24912150, E-Mail:

Dr. G. Sekaran obtained his MSc and PhD degrees from University of Madras in 1978 and 1990, respectively. He is currently a senior scientist, heading the Department of Environmental Technology, and ‘Carbon materials research group’, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, India. He is an honorary Professor of Anna University in the faculty of leather technology. His areas of interests include heterogeneous catalysis applied to oxidation of organics and inorganics in wastewater and in gaseous stream using carbon based heavy metal doped catalysts. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater, development of electron rich carbon based catalyst, oxidation of refractory organics using heavy metal doped mesoporous catalyst, development of photocatalysts, generation of electrical energy through biocatalysts etc. are the other areas of his interest.

S. Karthikeyan, (SRF) obtained his MSc chemistry in National College Trichy 2008. He is currently working as a senior research fellow in the “Carbon materials research group” at Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, India. His and his areas of interest include the catalytic oxidation of refractory organics using carbon material and preparation of new carbon catalytic material. Environmental chemistry

Prof. Dr. Asit Baran Mandal Ph.D. (Jadavpur) FASc, FRSC(UK) He is currently working as a Director at Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, India. His area of Interest: Physical chemistry, collagens, peptides, polymers, drugs, micelles, Reverse micelles and biocolloids, nano materials, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, solvation, monolayer and diffusional aspects.

Dr. Vinod Kumar Gupta, FWIF, FNASc, obtained his PhD degrees from 1979, University of Roorkee respectively. He is currently working as Professor. I IT Roorkee, Roorkee, Since 2001He is honor of Post Doctoral Fellow (CSIR), Univ. of Roorkee, 1979–81. Pool Officer (CSIR), Univ. of Roorkee, 1981–83. Lecturer, Univ. of Roorkee, 1983–94, Marie Curie Fellow of European Commission, Univ. of Regensburg, Germany Feb.1993- July 93. Reader/Assistant Professor, Univ. of Roorkee, 1994–98. Associate Professor, Univ. of Roorkee, 1998–2001 Professor. I IT Roorkee, Roorkee, Since 2001Thirty two years teaching experience (Physical, Analytical and General Chemistry) of under-graduate Engineering and Post-graduate classes, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (formerly University of Roorkee). His area of interest 1. Environmental Chemistry, 2. Electro-analytical Chemistr, 3. Chemical sensors, 4. Waste Management.


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Received: 2012-06-03
Revised: 2012-07-01
Published Online: 2013-04-05
Published in Print: 2012-11-01

© 2012, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich