Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 22, 2013

Preparation and Evaluation of β-Carotene Containing Microemulsion

Herstellung und Bewertung von β-Carotin enthaltenden Mikroemulsionen
Xiuhua Yan and Zhengwu Wang


Microemulsions (O/W, W/O and B.C.) formed in Tween80/ethanol/ethyl butyrate/water system were identified by phase diagram determination and conductivity measurement at 25 °C. Comparative studies were made, by means of dynamic light scattering, viscosity and UV measurements, on (1) the difference of viscosity and particle size between β-carotene solubilized and empty microemulsions; (2) the effects of sunlight and temperature on the stability of β-carotene both in microemulsion and in ethyl butyrate solution. It is shown that in β-carotene loaded systems, the mean particle diameter is 82.13 nm and the size distributions were quite broad (PDI = 0.35). Smaller particles (31.75 nm) and narrower particle size distribution of droplets (PDI = 0.14) were obtained in empty microemulsion. The sizes of droplets of both β-carotene loaded and empty ones get shrunk sharply in the first 3 days, then keep remarkable stability even for a month. β-carotene solubilized in microemulsion is much more stable than that solubilized in ethyl butyrate solution.


Mikroemulsionen (O/W, W/O und B.C.), die im System Tween80/Ethanol/Ethylbutyrat/Wasser entstanden sind, wurden mit der Phasendiagrammbestimmung und Leitfähigkeitsmessungen bei 25 °C identifiziert. Vergleichende Messungen der dynamischen Lichtstreuung, Viskosität und UV wurden durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, (1) die Unterschiede der Viskosität und der Partikelgröße zwischen der mit β-Carotin beladenen und der nicht beladenen Mikroemulsion zu ermitteln, und (2) die Einflüsse von Sonnenlicht und Wärme auf die Stabilität von β-Carotin in der Mikroemulsion und in Ethylbutyratlösung festzustellen. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass in dem mit β-Carotin beladenen Systemen der mittlere Partikeldurchmesser 82,13 nm beträgt und die Größenverteilungen sehr breit ist (PDI = 0,35). Kleinere Partikel (31,75 nm) und engere Größenverteilung der Tropfen (PDI = 0,14) wurden in der unbeladenen Mikroemulsion erhalten. Die Tropfengrößen sowohl in mit β-Carotin beladenen als auch in der unbeladenen Mikroemulsion schrumpften in den ersten drei Tagen stark, bleiben dann aber über einen Monat außergewöhnlich stabil. Das in der Mikroemulsion solubilisierte β-Carotin war sehr viel stabiler als das in der Ethylbutyratlösung.

3 Correspondence to Prof. Zhengwu, Wang Research Institute of BorLuh Food Safety Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Biolog, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P. R. China, 200240. Tel.: +86 21 34 20 57 48, Fax: +86 21 34 20 57 48, E-Mail:

Xiuhua Yan is an on-the-job Doctor candidate and instructor of Chemical and Biological, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng. She is presently leading a small group studying applications of β-Carotene.

Dr. Zhengwu Wang, is an instructor and Professor of Food Science, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Food Safety, He obtained Ph. D. in physical chemistry (University of Shandong, China, 2002). He conducts basic and applied research in self-assembled modified, colloidal chemistry, surfactant and has made outstanding achievements in surfactant research. He is the author of 100 publications related to her research in these fields. As a result of his contributions to science, he has been invited many times to give oral (keynote) presentations at international and national conferences.


1 Grolier, P., Azaas-Braesco, V., Zelmire, L. and Fessi, H.: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes.1111 (1992) 135. Search in Google Scholar

2 Taylor, T. J. and Stivala, S. S.: Polymer.37 (1996) 715.10.1021/bk-1994-0572.ch036 Search in Google Scholar

3 Granado, L. F., Olmedilla, A. B. and Herrero, B. C.: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Lipids and Lipid Metabolism.306 (1973) 58. Search in Google Scholar

4 Düring, R. A., Hoß, T. and Gäth, S.: Soil and Tillage Research.66 (2002) 183. Search in Google Scholar

5 Heuschkel, S. and Goebel, A.: J. Pharm. Sci.97 (2008) 603. Search in Google Scholar

6 Gupta, S. and Moulik, S. P.: J. Pharm. Sci.97 (2008) 22. Search in Google Scholar

7 Kogan, A. and Garti, N.: Adv. Colloid Interface Sc.123 (2006) 369. Search in Google Scholar

8 Cao, F. H. and OuYang, W. Q.: Archives of Pharmacal Research.34 (2011) 551. Search in Google Scholar

9 Bolzinger, M. A., Briancon, S., Pelletier, J., Fessi, H. and Chevalier, Y.: Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm.68 (2008) 446. Search in Google Scholar

10 Yaghmur, A., Aserin, A. and Garti, N.: Colloids Surf A.209 (2002) 71. Search in Google Scholar

11 Rohman, Y. B., Che, M. and Eka, N.: J. Food Pharm. Sci.1 (2012) 1. Search in Google Scholar

12 Copestake, P.: Food and Chemical Toxicology.30 (1992) 825. Search in Google Scholar

13 Garti, N., Yaghmur, A., Leser, M. and Watzke, H. J.: J. Agr. Food Chem.49 (2001) 2552. Search in Google Scholar

14 Shevachman, M., Shani, A. and Garti, N.: JAOCS81 (2004) 1143. Search in Google Scholar

15 Mehta, S. K. and Bala, K.: Fluid. Phase. Equilib.172 (2000) 197209. Search in Google Scholar

16 Shah, D. O. (Ed.): Micelles, Microemulsions, and Monolayers, Marcel Dekker, New York. 1998. Search in Google Scholar

17 Alam, M. M., Ushiyama, K. and Aramaki, K.: J. Oleo. Sci.58 (2009) 361. Search in Google Scholar

18 Jiang, J. and Sandler, S. I.: Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.42 (2003) 6267. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2012-5-30
Revised: 2012-9-12
Published Online: 2013-08-22
Published in Print: 2013-03-15

© 2013, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich