Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 22, 2013

Washing Wool with Surfactants and a Non-toxic Solvent Microemulsion: Influence of Water Hardness

Waschen von Wolle mit Tensiden und einer nicht toxischen Lösemittel-Mikroemulsion: Einfluss der Wasserhärte
Francisco J. Carrión-Fité

Abstract

In this work, detersive power (soil removal) was studied after washing a soiled wool fabric with addition of a non-toxic solvent microemulsion to conventional washing detergent formulations with the aim of improving the performance of the conventional washing. The non-toxic solvent used was dimethyl sulfoxide micro-dispersed with an amphoteric surfactant as emulsifier. The fabric was washed with biodegradable non-ionic surfactants such as an alcohol ethoxylate (AE) with 7 m E. O. and an alkyl polyglucoside with 1.4 glucoside groups (APG). The fabric used was EMPA 107 wool (soiled with standard impurities). The non-ionic surfactants were used separately and in mixture in varying proportions for the washes. Given the large amount of impurities in the wool fabric, sodium carbonate and sodium chloride were used to attain a suitable pH to avoid damaging the wool. The fabric was washed at low temperature with water of different hardness (20 °hf, 30 °hf and 40 °hf). In addition, the sequestering agent DTPMP was used to obtain an improvement of detersive power at the hardness of 40 °hf.

Kurzfassung

In dieser Untersuchung wurde die Waschleistung (Schmutzentfernung) nach der Wäsche eines angeschmutzten Wollgewebes mit einer konventionellen Waschmittelformulierung unter Zugabe einer nicht toxischen Lösemittel-Mikroemulsion untersucht. Ziel der Untersuchung war, die Leistung der konventionellen Wollwäsche zu verbessern. Bei dem nicht toxischen Lösemittel handelte es sich um Dimethylsulfoxid (DMSO), das mit einem amphoteren Tensid als Emulgator mikrodispergiert wurde. Das Gewebe wurde mit biologisch abbaubaren Tensiden wie z. B. einem Alkoholethoxilat mit 7 EO-Gruppen und mit einem Alkylpolyglucosid mit 1,4 Glucosid-Gruppen gewaschen. Das verwendete Gewebe war das Wollgewebe EMPA 107 (mit Standardschmutz angeschmutzt). Die nichtionischen Tenside wurden sowohl einzeln als auch als Mischung mit verschiedenen Mengenverhältnissen in den Wäschen eingesetzt. Angesichts der großen Menge an Verunreinigungen auf dem Wollgewebe, wurden Natriumcarbonat und Natriumchlorid zugeben, um durch Einstellung eines geeigneten pH-Werts Wollschäden zu vermeiden. Das Gewebe wurde bei niedrigen Temperaturen mit unterschiedlich hartem Wasser (20 °hf, 30 °hf and 40 °hf) gewaschen. Des Weiteren wurde das Komplexiermittel DTPMP verwendet, um die Waschkraft bei eine rHärte von 40°hf zu verbessern.


1 Prof. Dr. Francisco J. Carrión-Fité, Instituto de Investigacion Textil y C. I. de Terrassa, Colom, 15, 08222 TERRASSA (Barcelona), Spain, Tel.: 0 03 49 37 39 82 77, Fax: 0 03 49 37 39 82 72

Prof. Dr. Francisco J. Carrión-Fité is Full Professor in the Departament of Textile and Paper Engineering, which belongs to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. (UPC), SPAIN. He was the director from 2003 until 2009.

Is Professor n the “Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenierías Industrial y Aeronáutica de Terrassa” (ETSEIAT) and Professor in the “Escuela de Ingeniería de Tarrassa” (EET). He is professor researcher in to the “Textile Research Institute and Industrial Cooperation in Terrassa (INTEXTER) (UPC)”, in which he was his Director from 1996 until 1999. At present, he is Technical Director of his Laboratory of Surfactants and Detergency. He is Professor in the Master E-TEAM of AUTEX and publisher of the Bulletin INTEXTER (UPC), UPC as well as referee in international textile journals. He is member of the AENOR Technical Committee of Normalization CTN55B about Surface Active Agents and member of the Group of work CEN/TC248/WG9. He is also member in different Associations like AOCS, AEQCT, RSEQ, AEC, etc. He has supervised Ph Thesis and different Projects in the UPC and in collaboration with the industry. He has published more than 100 articles and attended more than 80 International Congresses.


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Received: 2012-8-17
Revised: 2012-11-20
Published Online: 2013-08-22
Published in Print: 2013-03-15

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