Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 1, 2013

Properties of Binary Surfactant Systems of a Cationic Ester-Containing Gemini Surfactant with Some Conventional Surfactants in Aqueous Solutions

Eigenschaften binärer Tensidsystemen mit einem kationischen Gemini-Ester-Tensid und konventionellen Tensiden in wässrigen Lösungen
  • Hujun Xu , Peng Kang and Xinyan Bao


Gemini surfactant, N,N′-bis(dimethyl ethyl dodecane)ethyl ether dibromide was synthesized and symbolized as II-12-EO2. The surface chemical properties and micelle behaviors of II-12-EO2 with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) lauryl ether (C12E6) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were investigated in 0.1 mol · L−1 sodium bromide aqueous solution at 313 K using surface tension measurements and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of II-12-EO2 is 1.99 × 10−4 mol · L−1 and the aggregation number is 23. The cmc values of the two binary systems with different molar fractions are all lower than those of pure constituent surfactants, and the aggregation numbers of the binary systems are all larger than that of II-12-EO2. The interaction parameters β of the two binary systems were calculated, and the negative values of β indicate the existence of synergism in surface tension reduction efficiency, mixed micelle formation and surface tension reduction effectiveness.


Es wurde das Gemini-Tensid N,N′-Bis(di-methylethyldodecan)ethyl-etherdibromid synthetisiert und als II-12-EO2 bezeichnet. Die chemischen Oberflächeneigenschaften und das mizellare Verhalten von II-12-EO2 mit Poly(ethylenoxid)(PEO)laurylether (C12E6) und Natriumdodecylsulfat (SDS) in wässriger 0,1 mol/L Natriumbromidlösung wurden bei 313 K mittels der Messung der Oberflächenspannung und der stationären Fluoreszenzspektroskopie untersucht. Die kritische Mizellbildungskonzentration (cmc) von II-12-EO2 beträgt 1,99 × 10−4 mol · L−1, die Aggregationszahl ist 23. Die cmc-Werte der beiden binären Systeme mit unterschiedlichen Molenbrüchen sind kleiner als die der reinen Komponenten. Die Aggregationszahlen der binären Systeme sind höher als die von II-12-EO2. Es wurde die Wechselwirkungsparameter β der beiden binären Systeme berechnet. Die negativen β-Werte deuten auf Synergismen bei der Reduktion der Effizienz der Oberflächenspannung, bei der Bildung von Mischmizellen und bei der Abnahme der Effektivität der Oberflächenspannung hin.

*Mr. Peng Kang, Zhejiang Zanyu Technology Co., Ltd., 128 Chengtou Xiang, Meihuabei, Hangzhou 310009, P. R. China, Tel.: +8 61 37 35 88 17 01, E-Mail:

Hujun Xu is a pH.D graduate of Wuxi Institute of Light Industry and Nanjing University of Science & Technology. He has been involved in surfactants and detergents for over 20 years.

Peng Kang graduated from Jiangnan University and is currently involved in surfactants and detergents at Zhejiang Zanyu Technology Co., LTD.

Xinyan Bao graduated from Jiangnan University and is currently involved in surfactants and detergents.


1. Yoshimura, T. and Esumi, K. E.: Synthesis and surface properties of anionic Gemini surfactants with amide groups. J. Colloid Interface Sci.276 (2004) 231238. DOI: in Google Scholar

2. Tsubone, K., Arakawa, Y. and Rosen, M. J.: Structural effects on surface and micellar properties of alkanediyl-α, ω-bis(sodium N-acyl-β-alaninate) gemini surfactants. J. Colloid Interface Sci.262 (2003) 516524. DOI: in Google Scholar

3. Tsubone, K.: The interaction of an anionic Gemini surfactant with conventional anionic surfactants. J Colloid Interface Sci.261 (2003) 524528. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00088-2.Search in Google Scholar

4. Zhao, G. X. and Zhu, B. Y.: Principles of Surfactant Action, China Light Industry Press, Beijing (2003).Search in Google Scholar

5. Ben-Mosche, M. and Magdassi, S.: Surface activity and micellar properties of anionic Gemini surfactants and their analogues. Colloid and Surface A.250 (2004) 403408. DOI: in Google Scholar

6. Sun, Y., Yin, F. S. and Song, Z. Q.: New surfactants, Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (2003)Search in Google Scholar

[7] Bhattacharya, S., and Haldar, J., Molecular design of surfactants to tailor its aggregation properties. Colloids and Surfaces A. 205 (2002) 119126. DOI: in Google Scholar

7. Zana, R.: Dimeric (Gemini) Surfactants: effect of the spacer group on the association behavior in aqueous solution. J. Colloid Interface Sci.248 (2002) 203220. DOI: in Google Scholar

8. Camessano, T. A. and Nagarajan, R.: Micelle formation and cmc of Gemini surfactants: A thermodynamic model. Colloids and Surfaces A.167 (2000) 165177. DOI: in Google Scholar

9. Li, Z. X., Dong, C. C. and Thomas, R. K.: Neutron reflectivity studies of the surface excess of Gemini surfactants at the air/water interface, Langmuir. 15 (1999) 43924396. DOI: in Google Scholar

10. Takeda, T.: Synthesis and properties of the biodegradable surfactants. J. Jp. Chem. Soc.49 (2000) 1053.Search in Google Scholar

11. Menger, F. and Keiper, J. S.: Gemini surfactants. Angewandte Chemie International Edition39 (11) (2000) 19061920. DOI:<1906::AID-ANIE1906>3.0.CO;2-QSearch in Google Scholar

12. Tehrani-Bagha, A. R. and Holmberg, K.: Cationic ester-containing Gemini surfactants: Physical-chemical properties. Langmuir.26 (2010) 92769282. DOI: in Google Scholar

13. Kalyanasundaram, K. and Thomas, J. K.: Environmental effects on vibronic band intensities in pyrene monomer fluorescence and their application in studies of micellar systems. J. Am. Chem. Soc.99 (1977) 2039. DOI: in Google Scholar

14. Mats, A.: Fluorescence studies of micelles, New York: Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science (2002).Search in Google Scholar

15. Mathias, J. H., Rosen, M. J. and Davenport, L.: Fluorescence study of premicellar aggregation in cationic Gemini surfactants. Langmuir17 (2001) 61486154. DOI: in Google Scholar

16. Hu, C. C., Li, R. Q. and Yang, H.: Properties of binary surfactant systems of nonionic surfactants C12E10, C12E23, and C12E42 with a cationic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solutions. J. Colloid Interface Sci.356 (2011) 605613. DOI: in Google Scholar PubMed

17. Sharma, S. K., Hassan, P. A. and Rakshit, A. K.: Self aggregation of binary surfactant mixtures of a cationic dimeric (Gemini) surfactant with nonionic surfactants in aqueous medium. Colloid and Surface A.289 (2006) 1724. DOI: in Google Scholar

Received: 2013-06-05
Revised: 2013-09-13
Published Online: 2013-05-01
Published in Print: 2014-03-17

© 2014, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich

Downloaded on 10.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button