Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 2, 2015

Destabilization of Gas Condensate Oil-Water Emulsion by Dissolved Air Flotation Using New Non Ionic Surfactants

Destabilisierung von Emulsionen aus Gaskondensatöl und Wasser mittels Entspannungsflotation und Einsatz neuer nichtionischer Tenside
Ahmed M. Al-sabagh, A. M. Sharaky, Mahmoud R. Noor El-din and Khaled M. Hussein

Abstract

This paper focuses on the synthesis of new demulsifiers based on oleic acid monoamide to treat gas condensate-in-water emulsions. The chemical structure of the prepared ethoxylated demulsifier was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The treatment of gas condensate-in-water emulsions was investigated by means of dissolved-air flotation jar-tests. The effect of several parameters on the flotation efficiency for separation of the emulsified oil was investigated such as: effect of pH value, demulsifiers concentration, feed rate (L/min) and saturator working pressure (psi). Also, the surface and interfacial tensions, and the thermodynamic properties of the prepared surfactants have been studied. The results show that the optimum oil removal (99.9%) was obtained for OT3 at the concentration of 150 ppm, pH = 2, feed rate = 0.1 L/min and the saturation pressure 10 psi.

Kurzfassung

Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese neuer Emulsionsspalter auf Basis von Ölsäuremonoamid, mit denen Gaskondensat-in-Wasser-Emulsionen behandelt werden. Die chemische Struktur der hergestellten ethoxilierten Emulsionsspalter wurde mittels FT-IR- und 1H NMR-Spektroskopie bestätigt. Die Behandlung der Gaskondensat-in-Wasser-Emulsionen wurde mit Hilfe von Entspannungsflotations-Jartests durchgeführt. Der Einfluss verschiedener Parameter auf die Flotationseffizienz bei der Trennung von emulgiertem Öl wurde bestimmt. Die Parameter waren: pH-Wert, Konzentration des Emulsionsspalters, die Fördermenge (L/min) und der Betriebsdruck des Sättigers (psi). Ebenfalls wurden die Oberflächen- und Grenzflächenspannung und die thermodynamischen Parameter der hergestellten Tenside untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine optimale Ölentfernung von 99,9% mit OT3 bei einer Konzentration von 150 ppm, bei einem pH von 2, einer Fördermenge von 0,1 L/min und einem Sättigungsdruck von 10 psi erhalten wurde.


* Correspondence address, Dr. M. R. Noor El-din, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), 1 Ahmed El- Zomor St., Nasr City, 11727, Cairo, Egypt, Tel.: +2(02)22745902, Fax: +2(02)227727433, E-Mail:

Mahmoud R. Noor El-Din received his Ph.D. from Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He is currently an associate professor of applied organic chemistry, petroleum applications department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Cairo, Egypt, with research interests in the synthesis of new surfactants and their applications in petroleum industries. Recently, he works on the formulation of mini, micro and nanoemulsions for different applications. He spend two months as a postdoctoral fellow at Max-Planck-Institute for Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam/Golm, Germany in the framework of a DFG fellowship and one month Senior fellowship at Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, INDIA in C.V. Raman International Fellowship for African Researchers. He has 10 years of experience as a researcher in the Chemical Services and Development Centre (CSDC), EPRI, Cairo, Egypt.


References

1. Al-Zoubi, H., Al-Thyabat, S. and Al-Khatib, L.: A hybrid flotation-membrane process for wastewater treatment: an overview; Desalin. Water Treat.7 (2009) 60. 10.5004/dwt.2009.726Search in Google Scholar

2. Da Rosa, J. J. and Rubio, J.: The FF (flocculation-flotation) process; Miner. Eng.18 (2005) 701. 10.1016/j.mineng.2004.10.010Search in Google Scholar

3. Al-Shamrani, A. A., James, A. A. and Xiao, H.: Destabilisation of oil-water emulsions and separation by dissolved air flotation; Water Res. 36 (2002) 1503. 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00347-5Search in Google Scholar

4. Gregory, R. and Zabel, T.: in: PontiusFW, Water quality and treatment, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990, pp. 367453; ISBN 0-07-001659-3.Search in Google Scholar

5. Offringa, G.: Dissolved air flotation in Southern Africa; Water Sci. Technol.31 (1995) 159. 10.1016/0273-1223(95)00214-8Search in Google Scholar

6. Mohamed, T. and Nadji, M.: Optimization of oil removal from oily wastewater by electrocoagulation using response surface method; J. Hazard. Mater.158 (2008) 107115. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.051Search in Google Scholar

7. Takahashi, T., Miyahara, T. and Nishizaki, Y.: Separation of oily water by bubble column; J. Chem. Eng. Jpn.12 (1979) 394. 10.1252/jcej.12.394Search in Google Scholar

8. Richard, T. B., Richard, T. and Cheremisinoff, P. N.: Oil/Water Separation Technology: The Options Available, Part 2, Water and Sewage Works, 1978; ERIC Number: EJ187482.Search in Google Scholar

9. Edzwald, J. K., Walsh, J. P., Kaminski, G. S. and Dunn, H. J.: Flocculation and air requirements for dissolved air flotation; J. Am. Water Works Assoc.84 (1992) 92. 10.2307/41293665Search in Google Scholar

10. Bunker, D. Q., Edzwald, J. K., Dahlquist, J. and Gillberg, L.: Pretreatment considerations for dissolved air flotation: Water type, coagulants and flocculation; Water Sci. Technol.31 (1995) 63. 10.1016/0273-1223(95)00205-2Search in Google Scholar

11. Fukushi, K. I., Matsui, Y. and Tambo, N.: Dissolved air flotation: experiments and kinetic analysis; J. Water Supply Res. Technol.47 (1998) 76. 10.1046/j.1365-2087.1998.00085.xSearch in Google Scholar

12. Klute, R., Langer, S. and Pfeifer, R.: Optimization of coagulation processes prior to DAF; Water Sci. Technol.31 (1995) 59. 10.1016/0273-1223(95)00206-3Search in Google Scholar

13. Vlaski, A., Van Breemen, A. N. and Alaerts, G. J.: Optimisation of coagulation conditions for the removal of cyanobacteria by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation; J. Water Supply Res. Technol.45 (1996) 253. 10.1016/j.seppur.2006.03.017Search in Google Scholar

14. Al-ShamranimA.A., Jamesm, A. and Xiaom, H.: Separation of oil from water by dissolved air flotation; Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects209 (2002) 15. 10.1016/S0927-7757(02)00208-XSearch in Google Scholar

15. Fang, C. S., Chang, B. K. L., Lai, P. M. C. and Klaila, W. J.: Microwave demulsification; Chem. Eng. Commun.73 (1988) 227. 10.1080/00986448808940444Search in Google Scholar

16. Fang, C. S. and Lai, P. M. C.: Microwave heating and separation of water-in-oil emulsions; JMPEE. 30 (1995) 46; ISSN 0832-7823.Search in Google Scholar

17. Hirato, T., Koyama, K., Tanaka, T., Awakura, Y. and Majima, H.: Demulsification of water-in-oil emulsion by an electrostatic coalescence method; Mater. Trans.32 (1991) 257; ISSN: 09161821.Search in Google Scholar

18. Wang, S. S., Lee, C. J. and Chan, C. C.: Demulsification of Water-in-oil emulsions by use of a high voltage ac field; Sep. Sci. Technol.29 (1994) 159. 10.1080/01496399408002475Search in Google Scholar

19. Krawczyk, M. A., Wasan, D. T. and Shetty, C.: Chemical demulsification of petroleum emulsions using oil-soluble demulsifiers; Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.30 (1991) 367. 10.1021/ie00050a014Search in Google Scholar

20. Mason, S. L., May, K. and Hartland, S.: Drop size and concentration profile determination in petroleum emulsion separation; Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects96 (1995) 85. 10.1016/0927-7757(94)03030-4Search in Google Scholar

21. Demetriades, K., Coupland, J. N. and McClements, D. J.: Physical Properties of whey protein stabilized emulsions as related to pH and NaCl; J. Food Sci.62 (1997) 342. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1997.tb03997.xSearch in Google Scholar

22. Ferm, R. J. and Riebsomer, J. L.: The Chemistry of the 2-imidazolines and imidazolidines; Chem. Rev.54 (1954) 593. 10.1021/cr60170a002Search in Google Scholar

23. Yinqiu, Wu. and PhilipR.H.: Thermal reactions of fatty acids with diethylene triamine; JAOCS. 74 (1997) 6164. 10.1007/s11746-997-0120-2Search in Google Scholar

24. Bistline, R. G., Hampson, J. W. and Linfield, W. M.: Synthesis and properties of fatty imidazolines and their N-(2-aminoethyl) derivatives; JAOCS. 60 (1983) 823. 10.1007/bf02787436Search in Google Scholar

25. Linfield, W. M.: Fatty oxazolines and imidazolines; J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc.61 (1984) 437. 10.1007/bf02678810Search in Google Scholar

26. Farag, A. A. and Noor El-Din, M. R.: The adsorption and corrosion inhibition of some nonionic surfactants on API X65 steel surface in hydrochloric acid; Corrosion Sci. 64 (2012) 174. 10.1016/j.corsci.2012.07.016Search in Google Scholar

27. Wu, Y. and Herrington, P. R.: Thermal reactions of fatty acids with diethylene triamine; J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.74 (1997) 61. 10.1007/s11746-997-0120-2Search in Google Scholar

28. Ford, R. E. and Furmidge, C. G. L.: Studies at phase interfaces: II. The stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions using oil-soluble emulsifiers; J. Colloid Interface Sci.22 (1966) 331. 10.1016/0021-9797(66)90013-0Search in Google Scholar

29. Badawi, A. M., Fahmy, A. A., Mohamed, K. A., Noor El-Din, M. R. and Riad, M. G.: The Effect of different ethoxylations for sorbitan monolaurate on enhancing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw to ethanol; Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.166 (2012) 22. 10.1007/s12010-011-9400-2Search in Google Scholar

30. Gehr, R. and Henry, J. G.: Measuring and predicting flotation performance; J.Water Pollut. Control Fed.50 (1978) 203. 10.2307/25039535Search in Google Scholar

31. Martinelli, F. N. and Lynch, B. W. J.: Factors Affecting the efficiency of dispersants, in, Warren Spring Laboratory, Stevenage, UK, 1980; ISBN: 0-85624-248-9.Search in Google Scholar

32. Noor El-Din, M. R., El-Hamouly, S. H., Mohamed, H. M., Mishrif, M. R. and Ragab, A. M.: Formation and Stability of water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions prepared by high-energy Method; J. Dispersion Sci. Technol.34 (2013) 575. 10.1080/01932691.2012.681606Search in Google Scholar

33. Rosen, M. J.: Surfactants and interfacial phenomena, third ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2004; ISBN 0-471-47818-0.Search in Google Scholar

34. Bajpai, D. and Tyagi, V. K.: Microwave synthesis of cationic fatty imidazolines and their characterization; J. Surf. Deterg.11 (2008) 79. 10.1007/s11743-007-1057-zSearch in Google Scholar

35. Kamel, A., Sabet, V., Sadek, H. and Srivasava, S. N.: The role of non-ionic surfactants in emulsion stability, in: A.Weiss (Ed.) Emulsions, Steinkopff, 1978, pp. 3340. 10.1007/BFb0117151Search in Google Scholar

36. Zouboulis, A. I. and Avranas, A.: Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions by coagulation and dissolved-air flotation; Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects172 (2000) 153. 10.1016/S0927-7757(00)00561-6Search in Google Scholar

37. Zaki, N. N., Abdel-Raouf, M. E.-S. and Abdel-Azim, A.-A. A.: Propylene Oxide-Ethylene Oxide Block Copolymers as Demulsifiers for Water-in-Oil Emulsions, Effects of Temperature, Salinity, pH-Value, and Solvents on the Demulsification Efficiency. Monatshefte für Chemie127 (1996b) 12391245. 10.1007/BF00807790Search in Google Scholar

38. Stachurski, J. and Michalek, M.: The Effect of the ζ Potential on the Stability of a Non-Polar Oil-in-Water Emulsion; J. Colloid Interface Sci.184 (1996) 433. 10.1006/jcis.1996.0637Search in Google Scholar

39. Chen, C. M., Lu, C. H., Chang, C. H., Yang, Y. M. and Maa, J. R.: Influence of pH on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by a splittable surfactant; Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects170 (2000) 173. 10.1016/S0927-7757(00)00480-5.Search in Google Scholar

40. Stephenson, R. J. and Duff, S. J. B.: Coagulation and precipitation of a mechanical pulping effluent- I. Removal of carbon, colour and turbidity. Water Res.30 (4) (1995) 781792. 10.1016/0043-1354(95)00213-8.Search in Google Scholar

41. Al-Sabagh, A. M., Badawi, A. M. and Noor El-Din, M. R.: Breaking water-in-crude oil emulsions by novel demulsifiers based on maleic anhydride-oleic acid adduct; Pet. Sci. Technol.20 (2002) 887. 10.1081/lft-120003685Search in Google Scholar

42. Al-Sabagh, A. M., Kandile, N. G. and Noor El-Din, M. R.: Functions of Demulsifiers in the petroleum industry; Sep. Sci. Technol.46 (2011) 1144. 10.1080/01496395.2010.550595Search in Google Scholar

43. Al-Sabagh, A. M., Abd-El-Bary, H. M., El-Ghazawy, R. A., Mishrif, M. R. and Hussein, B. M.: Surface active and thermodynamic properties of some surfactants derived from locally linear and heavy alkyl benzene in relation to corrosion inhibition efficiency; Mater. Corros.62 (2011) 1015. 10.1002/maco.201006017Search in Google Scholar

44. Al-Sabagh, A. M., Azzam, E. M. S. and Noor El Din, M. R.: The Surface and thermodynamic properties of ethoxylated sodium monoalkyl sulfosuccinate surfactants; J. Dispersion Sci. Technol.30 (2009) 260. 10.1080/01932690802477355Search in Google Scholar

45. Tang, L., Li, X., Li, L., Mu, G. and Liu, G.: The effect of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in acid media: Part 2: Inhibitive action in 0.5 M sulfuric acid; Mater. Chem. Phys. 97 (2006) 301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2005.08.014.Search in Google Scholar

46. Ashassi-Sorkhabi, S. H. and Seifzadeh, B. D.: Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by some schiff base compounds in hydrochloric acid; Appl. Surf. Sci.239 (2005) 154. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.05.143Search in Google Scholar

47. Magdassi, S., Frenkel, M. and Garti, N.: On the factors affecting the yield of preparation and stability of multiple emulsions; J. Dispersion Sci. Technol.5 (1984) 49. 10.1080/01932698408943207Search in Google Scholar

48. Rein, M.: Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces; Fluid Dyn. Res.12 (1993) 61. 10.1016/0169-5983(93)90106-KSearch in Google Scholar

49. Samuel, L. M. and Jiann, C. Y.: An experimental study of high Weber number impact of methoxy-nonafluorobutane C4F9OCH3 (HFE-7100) and n-heptane droplets on a heated solid surface; Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 45 (2002) 3961; (02) 00103-5. 10.1016/S0017-9310Search in Google Scholar

50. Strickland, W. T.: Laboratory results of cleaning produced water by gas flotation; J. Soc. Pet. Eng.20 (1980) 175. 10.2118/7805-PASearch in Google Scholar

51. Hiemenz, P. C. and Rajagopalan, R.: Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, 3rd Edition, Dekker: New York, 1997, p. 272; ISBN: 0824793978.Search in Google Scholar

52. Oliveira, R. C. G., Gonzalez, G. and Oliveira, J. F.: Interfacial studies on dissolved gas flotation of oil droplets for water purification; Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects154 (1999) 127. 10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00890-5Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2013-11-17
Accepted: 2014-10-23
Published Online: 2015-02-02
Published in Print: 2015-01-20

© 2015, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich

Scroll Up Arrow