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How to Improve Sustainability and Environmentally Friendly Behaviour in Automatic Dishwashing? Example: Germany

Wie lassen sich Nachhaltigkeit und umweltfreundlichens Verhalten beim maschinellen Geschirrspülen verbessern? Beispiel: Deutschland
Sandra Bichler , Susanne Gorny , Monika Seifert , Arnd Kessler and Rainer Stamminger

Abstract

Decreasing resource consumption concerning electricity, water and detergents in the framework of automatic dishwashing is not only determined by technical improvements. First and foremost, the use phase, in other words, the consumers and their choices, for example, the type of dishwasher, the kind of dishwashing programmes selected and the method of pretreating dishes, play an important role in terms of saving energy. To investigate the current dishwashing habits in Germany, 4 000 private households were asked about the usage of automatic dishwashers and the general dish treatment in everyday life. The results of the survey have shown a broad range of consumer behavior due to individual dishwashing habits. It also became obvious that consumers who more frequently use the energy saving “eco programme” tend to pretreat some dishes, such as pots and pans, with additional resources more often than the households who use other programmes. Therefore, the study reveals that a holistic view due to all resources consuming dishwashing steps is necessary to deduce adequate consumer recommendations for saving energy, water and detergents.

Kurzfassung

Um den Ressourcenverbrauch zu reduzieren, sind nicht ausschließlich technische Verbesserungen an automatischen Geschirrspülmaschinen zielführend. Eine wesentliche Rolle spielt auch die Gebrauchsphase, d. h. wie der Verbraucher die Geschirrspülmaschine nutzt. In diesem Zusammenhang können beispielsweise die Auswahl des Gerätemodells, die Programmwahl im Alltag und auch die Vorspülgewohnheiten einen messbaren Einfluss auf den Energieverbrauch ausüben. Um aktuelle Geschirrspülgewohnheiten in Deutschland zu untersuchen, wurden 4 000 Haushalte zu der Nutzung von Geschirrspülmaschinen befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine große Bandbreite an Verhaltensweisen. Des Weiteren zeigte sich, dass Haushalte, die überwiegend das Energiesparprogramm nutzen, im Vergleich zu den anderen Haushalten, auch häufiger Geschirrteile vorspülen und somit bei diesen Tätigkeiten bereits zusätzlich Ressourcen verbrauchen. Dieses Ergebnis zeigt unter anderem, dass zur Untersuchung von Verbrauchergewohnheiten beim Geschirrspülen die Notwendigkeit besteht, alle ressourcenverbrauchenden Prozesse während des Geschirrspülens mit einzubeziehen, um adäquate Verbraucherempfehlungen zur Einsparung von Energie, Wasser und Reinigern zu formulieren.


*Correspondence address, Dr. Sandra Bichler and Prof. Dr. Rainer Stamminger, Institut für Landtechnik, Sektion Haushaltstechnik, Nussallee 5, 53115 Bonn, Germany, Tel.: 00 49-2 28-73 59 55, Fax: 00 49-2 28-73 25 96, E-Mail: ,

Sandra Bichler is a research assistant in the Household and Appliance Technology Section at the University of Bonn in Germany. She has worked in different research areas with focus on end-users behaviour regarding laundry treatment, usage of cooling appliances, coffee machines and automatic dishwashers. Her PhD thesis has dealt with consumer behaviour regarding the energy efficient usage of automatic dishwashers.

Susanne Gorny has a diploma in nutrition and household science and finished her doctorate in the Household and Appliance Technology Section at the University of Bonn. In her dissertation, Susanne Gorny mathematically models the cleaning performance and energy consumption of an electric household dishwashing system and describes the potentials and impacts of low-temperature electric household dishwashing.

Monika Seifert graduated from University of Bielefeld in Organic Chemistry. She is working at Miele & Cie. KG (Research & Development) with more 20 years of practical experience in the field of automatic dishwashing.

Arnd Kessler graduated from Georg-Simon-Ohm University of applied Sciences in Nuremberg in Chemical Engineering (Dipl.-Ing.). In 1998 he joined Henkel's corporate research team. From 2000 until 2011 he worked as a product developer for automatic dishwashing detergents. Since 2011 Mr. Kessler heads Henkel's global appliance & technology team.

Rainer Stamminger. After 17 years of practical experience in the development of washing machines and dishwasher with AEG Hausgeräte, Germany Rainer Stamminger was promoted in 2002 as professor for appliance and process engineering at University of Bonn. Main areas of research at University are consumer behaviour of homework with and without using appliances, new products or features, smart appliances, robots for household application and questions of sustainability of housekeeping.


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Received: 2015-04-01
Accepted: 2015-06-02
Published Online: 2015-09-15
Published in Print: 2015-09-15

© 2015, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich

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