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Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 7, 2016

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Laundry Detergents with Regard to Time and Temperature in Domestic Washing Machines

Antimikrobielle Wirkung von Waschmitteln in Abhängigkeit von der Zeit und der Temperatur in Haushaltswaschmaschinen
Marlitt Honisch, Britta Brands, Mirko Weide, Horst-Dieter Speckmann, Rainer Stamminger and Dirk P. Bockmühl

Abstract

In times of low-temperature washing, laundry hygiene gains importance, as microbial contaminations on textiles can cause infection transmission and malodour formation. This study systematically investigated the antimicrobial effect of laundry detergents (solid and liquid market detergents) with regard to time and temperature in domestic washing machines. To evaluate the microbial reduction, cotton swatches contaminated with Staph. aureus, Ent. hirae, Ps. aeruginosa, C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes were washed at 20 to 60 °C, varying the washing time, with and without detergent. All tested washing factors affected the antimicrobial effect of to a varying extend, depending on the germ. The used solid market detergent containing activated oxygen bleach provided a way to achieve high microbial reductions in low temperature washing.

Kurzfassung

In den Zeiten des Niedrigtemperaturwaschens, gewinnt die Wäschehygiene an Bedeutung, weil mikrobielle Kontaminationen auf Textilien Infektionen übertragen und die Bildung übler Gerüche verursachen können. Diese Studie untersuchte systematisch die antimikrobielle Wirkung von Waschmitteln (marktübliche Pulver- und Flüssigwaschmittel) als Funktion der Behandlungsdauer und der Temperatur in Haushaltswaschmaschinen. Zur Bewertung der mikrobiellen Reduktion, wurden Baumwollprüfkörper, die mit Staph. aureus, Ent. hirae, Ps. aeruginosa, C. albicans und T. mentagrophytes kontaminiert waren, bei Temperaturen von 20 °C bis 60 °C unter Veränderung der Waschzeit mit und ohne Waschmittel gewaschen. Alle getesteten Waschfaktoren beeinflussten die antimikrobielle Wirkung im unterschiedlichen Maß, je nach getestetem Keim. Mit dem verwendeten marktüblichen Pulverwaschmittel mit aktivierter Sauerstoffbleiche konnten hohe Keimreduktionen bei niedrigen Waschtemperaturen erzielt werden.


*Correspondence address, Prof. Dr. Dirk P. Bockmühl, Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Marie-Curie-Str. 1, D-47533 Kleve, Tel.: +49282180673208, Fax: +4928218067344208, E-Mail:

Marlitt Honisch, Engineer, works as a scientist in the group of Prof. Bockmühl at the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences.

Britta Brands, Molecular Biologist, works as a scientist in the group of Prof. Bockmühl at the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences.

Dr. Mirko Weide, Microbiologist, works in the R&D department of the Laundry and Home Care unit at Henkel & Co. KGaA.

Dr. Horst-Dieter Speckmann, Chemist, works in the R&D department of the Laundry and Home Care unit at Henkel & Co. KGaA.

Prof. Dr. Rainer Stamminger, Engineer, works as a professor for Household Technology and Process Engineering at the University of Bonn.

Prof. Dr. Dirk Bockmühl, Microbiologist, works as a professor for Hygiene and Microbiology at the Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences.


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Received: 2016-07-13
Accepted: 2016-09-05
Published Online: 2016-11-07
Published in Print: 2016-11-15

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