Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 13, 2017

Extraction of Natural Surfactant Saponin from Soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and its Utilization in the Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Contaminated Water

Extraktion des natürlichen Tensids Saponin aus Waschnüssen (Sapindus mukorossi) und dessen Verwendung bei der Aufbereitung von sechswertigem Chrom aus kontaminiertem Wasser
Monohar Hossain Mondal, Susanta Malik, Amit Garain, Sangita Mandal and Bidyut Saha


In this study optimization of extraction conditions for saponin from soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) has been investigated. This investigation showed that a better extraction of saponin can be achieved with increasing the dielectric constant of solvent employed. The best yield was attained in a 50% v/v aqueous ethanol medium. Another objective of the present study is to assess the thermodynamics of the uptake-reduction of hexavalent chromium in contaminated water samples using saponin. Pyrene has been employed to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC) (in the UV-vis method of determination) of saponin as a spectroscopic probe. Thus, the effectiveness of the bio-surfactant as a self-motivated adsorbent for hexavalent chromium is investigated. Several physico-chemical parameters like contact time, sorbate concentration, pH and temperature have been determined. The findings of the investigation invoked a very efficient uptake of 213.48 mg g−1 of hexavalent chromium from the contaminated water sample at a lower value of pH 2 and temperature 35°C. It is observed that the method followed a pseudo-first order kinetics, where the evaluated ΔG0 has supported the sorption as a feasible and spontaneous process. The HR-MS, FTIR, steady state Fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy have been employed for the current scientific studies.


In dieser Studie wurde die Optimierung der Extraktionsbedingungen für Saponin aus Waschmüssen (Sapindus mukorossi) untersucht. Diese Untersuchung zeigte, dass sich Saponin mit zunehmender Dielektrizitätskonstante des eingesetzten Lösungsmittels besser extrahieren ließ. Die höchste Ausbeute wurde in einem wässrigen Ethanolmedium (50% v/v) erreicht. Ein weiteres Ziel der gegenwärtigen Studie ist es, die Thermodynamik der Entfernung von sechswertigem Chrom aus kontaminierten Wasserproben mit Saponin zu beurteilen. Pyren wurde als spektroskopische Sonde verwendet, um die kritische Mizellenbildungskonzentration (CMC) (mit der UV-Vis-Bestimmungsmethode) von Saponin zu bestimmen. Die Wirksamkeit des Biotensids als selbsttätiges Adsorptionsmittel für sechswertiges Chrom wird damit untersucht. Es wurden mehrere physikalisch-chemische Parameter wie Kontaktzeit, Sorbatkonzentration, pH und Temperatur bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigten eine sehr effiziente Aufbereitung von 213,48 mg g–1 sechswertigem Chrom aus der kontaminierten Wasserprobe bei einem niedrigeren pH-Wert von 2 und einer Temperatur von 35°C. Es wird beobachtet, dass die Methode einer Kinetik pseudo-erster Ordnung folgt, wobei die bestimmte freie Sorptions-Energie ΔG0 einen durchführbaren und spontanen Prozess anzeigt. Für die aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Studien wurden die Methoden HR-MS, FTIR, stationäre Fluoreszenzspektroskopie, HR-TEM- und UV-Vis-Spektroskopie eingesetzt.

Monohar Hossain Mondal was born in kalna, Burdwan in 1991. He has completed his M. Sc. degree from The University of Burdwan in 2013 and received UGC-NET JRF in the same year. After completing one year as JRF at the Bioremediation Laboratory (The University of Burdwan), he has been appointed as WBES Officer by the Government of West Bengal and presently working as Assistant Professor in Chemistry at Govt. General Degree College at Singur, Hooghly, WB, India.

Susanta Malik was born in Kalna, Burdwan in 1988. He has completed his M. Sc. degree from The University of Burdwan in 2011 after receiving the UGC-RGNF fellowship in 2012, He is currently working on Surfactant Chemistry as a senior member of the Homogeneous Catalysis Laboratory (The University of Burdwan).

Amit Garain was born in Birbhum, India in 1995. He is currently working as a JRF in the department of chemistry Jadavpur University, WB, India.

Sangita Mandal was born in Bankura, India in 1991. She is a current JRF at Homogeneous Catalysis Laboratory, The University of Burdwan, WB, India.

Bidyut Saha was born in Birbhum, WB, India in 1975. He obtained his Ph. D. degree from Visva Bharati University, India in 2007. He was a visiting scientist between 2009 – 2010 in the Department of Chemistry, UBC, Vancouver, Canada. Dr Saha is presently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, India. His area of interests is bioremediation of toxic metals, micellar catalysis and inorganic reaction mechanisms. He has published 80 papers in international journals.

*Correspondence address, Prof. Dr. Bidyut Saha, Bioremediation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, 713104, WB, India, Tel.: +91-342-2533913 (Office), Mobile: +91-9476341691, Fax: +91-342-2530452(Office), E-Mail:


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Received: 2017-04-17
Accepted: 2017-06-13
Published Online: 2017-11-13
Published in Print: 2017-11-15

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