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Synthesis and Characterization of Dicationic Gemini Surfactant Micelles and their Effect on the Rate of Ninhydrin–Copper-Peptide Complex Reaction

Synthese und Charakterisierung von dikationischen Geminitensid-Mizellen und ihr Einfluss auf die Geschwindigkeit der Ninhydrin-Kupfer-Peptid-Komplexreaktion
Dileep Kumar and Malik Abdul Rub


Herein, we have synthesized and characterized dicationic Gemini surfactants. The effect of their micelles on the rate constant of ninhydrin with [Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+ complex reaction was investigated under pseudo-first-order-conditions. Experiments were carried out by means of spectrophotometry. First- and fractional-order dependencies on [Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+ and ninhydrin, respectively, were found. The results indicated that the efficiency of micellar catalysis by Gemini surfactants was significantly higher as compared to single-chained surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB. The Gemini surfactant produces a catalytic effect and leveling-off regions (just like CTAB) on the reaction rate. Later, Gemini with higher concentrations gives a third region of increasing kψ. The effect of surfactants was rationalized by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The observed kinetic effects are explained by applying the Menger-Portnoy model.


In dieser Untersuchung wurden di-kationische Geminitenside synthetisiert und charakterisiert. Der Einfluss ihrer Mizellen auf die Geschwindigkeitskonstante der Ninhydrin-[Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+-Komplexreaktion wurde unter den Bedingungen der Pseudo-Ersten-Ordnung untersucht. Experimente wurden mittels Spektrophotometrie durchgeführt. Es wurden Abhängigkeiten erster bzw. gebrochener Ordnung von dem Komplex [Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+ bzw. von Ninhydrin gefunden. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die Effizienz der mizellaren Katalyse durch die Geminitenside signifikant höher war als die mit dem einfachen Tensid Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromid (CTAB) durchgeführten Reaktion. Das Geminitensid erzeugt einen katalytischen Effekt auf die Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit und abflachende Bereiche (genau wie CTAB). Später zeigt sich bei höheren Geminitensid-Konzentrationen eine dritte Region mit zunehmendem kψ. Der Einfluss der Tenside wurde durch hydrophobe und elektrostatische Wechselwirkungen begründet. Die beobachteten kinetischen Effekte werden durch Anwendung des Menger-Portnoy-Modells erklärt.

*Correspondence address, Dr. Dileep Kumar, Division of Computational Physics, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, E-mail:

Dr. Dileep Kumar is currently working as a Researcher at Ton Duc Thang University (TDTU), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Before joining TDTU, he was a Post Doctoral Fellow (PDF) at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Perak, Malaysia. He achieved his Ph.D. degree from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. His research interests include chemical kinetics, micellar catalysis, metal-binding with protein, clouding phenomenon, and solution behavior of amphiphiles.

Dr. Malik Abdul Rub received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Presently, he is working as an Assistant Professor at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. His current research interests are mixed micellization study of amphiphilic drugs with different additives and clouding phenomenon in amphiphilic systems.


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Received: 2017-03-06
Accepted: 2017-05-24
Published Online: 2018-01-15
Published in Print: 2018-01-19

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