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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 18, 2020

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Cationic Amino Sugar Surfactants

Mikrowellenunterstützte Synthese von kationischen Amino-Zuckertensiden
  • Priya S. Singh , Aizaz Shaikh , Aditi Deshmukh and Amit P. Pratap


Chitosan is an abundant and renewable natural biopolymer which exhibits a variety of beneficial properties. Quaternized chitosan compound was extensively studied as an antistatic agent in cosmetics and hair care products such as in hair conditioners and fabric softeners. However, the low solubility of chitosan in water limits its applications. This paper describes a novel way to synthesize quaternized derivatives which were further used as cationic amino sugar based surfactants. The quaternized derivatives of chitosan were synthesized and characterized on the basis of various properties. The resulting derivatives have excellent solubilities in aqueous solutions. In the present work the cationic quaternized surfactants were synthesized under microwave irradiation. Compared to a conventional synthesis the compound N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was obtained with higher yield from the reaction between chitosan and methyl iodide using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent. We also synthesized it by adding dimethyl sulfate (DMS) under conventional as well as microwave irradiation method. The characterization of the quaternized derivatives of chitosan was done by FTIR spectra, 1H NMR, TLC and XRD analysis. Thus, a cationic amino sugar surfactant using a biopolymer was successfully synthesized under microwave irradiation with an efficient yield.


Chitosan ist ein reichlich vorhandenes und erneuerbares natürliches Biopolymer, das eine Vielzahl von vorteilhaften Eigenschaften aufweist. Die quaternisierte Chitosan-Verbindung wurde ausführlich als antistatisches Mittel in Kosmetika und Haarpflegeprodukten wie z. B. in Haarspülungen und in Weichspülern untersucht. Die geringe Löslichkeit von Chitosan in Wasser schränkt jedoch seine Anwendungen ein. Dieser Beitrag bietet eine neuartige Möglichkeit zur Synthese quaternisierter Derivate, die als kationische Tenside auf der Basis von Amino-Zuckern weiter verwendet werden. Die quaternisierten Derivate von Chitosan wurden auf der Basis verschiedener Eigenschaften synthetisiert und charakterisiert. Die resultierenden Derivate haben ausgezeichnete Löslichkeiten in wässrigen Lösungen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die kationischen quaternisierten Tenside unter Mikrowellenbestrahlung synthetisiert. Im Vergleich zur konventionellen Synthese wurde die Verbindung N,N,N-Trimethylchitosan (TMC) mit höherer Ausbeute aus der Reaktion zwischen Chitosan und Methyliodid unter Verwendung von N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidon (NMP) als Lösungsmittel erhalten. Wir synthetisierten es auch durch Zugabe von Dimethylsulfat (DMS) sowohl unter konventioneller als auch unter Mikrowellen-Bestrahlung. Die Charakterisierung der quaternisierten Derivate von Chitosan wurde mit FTIR-Spektren, 1H-NMR, TLC und XRD-Analyse durchgeführt. Auf diese Weise wurde ein kationisches Zuckertensid mit einem Biopolymer unter Mikrowellen-Bestrahlung in einer effizienten Ausbeute erfolgreich synthetisiert.

Correspondence address, Prof. Dr. Amit P. Pratap, Department of Oils, Oleochemicals and Surfactants Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology (University under Section-3 of UGC Act 1956), Nathalal Parekh Road, Matunga (East), Mumbai – 400019, India, Tel.: 91-22-33 61 25 56, Fax: 91-22-33 61 10 20, E-Mail:

Dr. Amit P. Pratap completed his graduation and post graduation in Oil Technology in 2001 and obtained his doctorate degree in 2006 from Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai. He served the department as a “Professor J. G. Kane Academic Associate” for over two years and worked as Assistant Professor over 10 years. At present he is Associate Professor and for the 15 years he is involved in the teaching, research and development in the field of vegetable oil based lubricants, additives and biosurfactants. His research interest includes triboapplications of vegetable oils, structural modifications of oils and fats, biosurfactants and specialty products.

Ms. Priya Singh completed his graduation and post graduation in Chemistry from University of Mumbai. At present she is perusing Ph. D. (Science) in Chemistry at Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai.

Mr. Aizaz Shaikh completed his graduation in Chemical Engg from Univeristy of Mumbai. At present he is perusing M. Tech. (Oils) at Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai.

Mrs. Aditi Deshmukh is currently working with B. Tech. in Oils, Oleochemicals and Surfactant Technology at Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, India.


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Received: 2019-04-27
Accepted: 2019-10-28
Published Online: 2020-06-18
Published in Print: 2020-05-15

© 2020, Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich

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