Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 1, 2014

Investigation of Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Algerian Date Palm Wood

Untersuchung der chemischen, physikalischen und mechanischen Eigenschaften von algerischem Dattelpalmenholz
Siham Amirou, Abdellatif Zerizer and Antonio Pizzi
From the journal Materials Testing

Abstract

In Algeria, the aging of palms is a significant constraint, since 30 % of the palms are over the age of production and they will consequently waste planting areas. A series of experiments have been accomplished to observe the possibility of converting the date palm stem into valuable woodworking products. This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of date palm trunk (Phoenix dactylifera L.) from Biskra oasis in Algeria. First, their chemical composition was studied and showed that they have amounts of holocellulose, lignin and cellulose similar to those encountered in softwood and hardwood. Results of flexural strength showed that the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were 6647.04 MPa and 35.04 MPa, respectively. The compression modulus and strength were 5.35 MPa and 2.338 MPa in parallel compressive tests, respectively.

Kurzfassung

In Algerien stellt die Alterung von Palmen eine signifikante Einschränkung dar, da 30 Prozent der Palmen über dem Produktionsalter liegen und diese vergeuden als Konsequenz Anpflanzungsgebiete. Eine Reihe von Experimenten wurde ausgeführt, um die Möglichkeiten der Nutzung der Palmenstämme für wertvolle Holzverarbeitungsprodukte zu untersuchen. In diesem Beitrag werden die Ergebnisse einer experimentellen Untersuchung der physikalischen, chemischen und mechanischen Eigenschaften von Dattelpalmstämmen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) der Biskra Oase in Algerien vorgestellt. Hierzu wurde zunächst die chemische Zusammensetzung untersucht und es stellte sich heraus, dass sie ähnliche Mengen an Holocellulose, Lignin and Cellulose wie Weich- und Harthölzer aufweisen. Die Ergebnisse hinsichtlich der Biegefestigkeit ergaben einen Elastizitätsmodul (modulus of elasticity (MOE)) und einen Bruchmodul (modulus of rupture (MOR)) von 6647.04 MPa bzw. 35.04 MPa. Der Druckmodul und die Spannung bei maximaler Festigkeit betrugen im parallelen Druckversuch 5.35 MPa bzw. 2.338 MPa.


* Correspondence Address, Doctorante Amirou Siham, URMPE, F.S.I., Université M’Hamed Bougara, 35000 Boumerdes, Algérie, E-Mail:

Dr. Siham Amirou, a PhD student at the University M'hamed Bougara in Boumerdes, Algeria.

Prof. Abdellatif Zerizer, a professor at the University M'hamed Bougara in Boumerdes, Algeria.

Prof. Antonio PIZZI, a professor at the University Lorraine, Epinal, France


References

1 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2008) FAOSTAT Prod STAT, CropsSearch in Google Scholar

2 R. RajBhansali: Date palm cultivation in the changing scenario of Indian arid zones: Challenges and prospects, K. G.Ramawat (Ed.): Desert Plants: Biology and Biotechnology (2010), pp. 42345910.1007/978-3-642-02550-1_20Search in Google Scholar

3 C.D.A.R.S: Phoenicicole national heritage, diversity and potential, training development of date palm (in Frensh), INFSAS, Ouargla (1996)Search in Google Scholar

4 C. T.Chao, R. R.Krueger: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Overview of biology, uses and cultivation, Hort Science42 (2007), pp. 10771082Search in Google Scholar

5 E. M.Messar: The Algerian date sector: Situation and prospects for 2010 (in Frensh), Options Méditerranéennes28 A (1996), pp. 2344Search in Google Scholar

6 S. E.Benziouche, F.Chehat: The conduct of the date palm in the palm of Zibans (Algeria) some elements of analysis (in Frensh), Eur. J. Sci. Res.42 (2010), No. 4, pp. 1450216Search in Google Scholar

7 F.Abdouche: Communication from the botanic unit development at the ministry of agriculture and rural development, Algerian Press Service, Algers, Algeria (2010)Search in Google Scholar

8 A.Belguedj: Diagnosis date palm sector in Algeria Analysis: Study steps products of date palm in the Maghreb (in Frensh), Algers, PNUD (2004)Search in Google Scholar

9 I.Hadrami, A.Hadrami: Breeding date palm, P. M. P. S.MohanJain (Ed.): Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Tropical Species, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany (2009), pp. 19121610.1007/978-94-007-1318-5_23Search in Google Scholar

10 W. H.Barreveld: Date palm products, FAO Agricultural Services, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (1993)Search in Google Scholar

11 D. L.Jones: Palms Throughout the World, Reed Book (1995)Search in Google Scholar

12 S.El-Shibli, H.Korelainen: Biodiversity of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Sudan: Chemical, morphological and DNA polymorphism of selected cultivars, Plant Genet. Resour.7 (2009), pp. 194203http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1479262108197489Search in Google Scholar

13 R. A.Seelig: Date: Fruit and vegetable facts and pointer, Unites Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association, Washington, DC, USA (1974)Search in Google Scholar

14 A.Zaid, P. F.Wet: Pollination and bunch management, A.Zaid (Ed): Date Palm Cultivation, FAO Plant Production and Protection, Paper No. 156, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy (2002), pp. 145175Search in Google Scholar

15 TAPPI T 257 cm-02: Sampling and Preparing Wood for Analysis (2002), TAPPI, Atlanta, USASearch in Google Scholar

16 L. E.Wise, M.Murphy: A Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and bearing on summative wood analysis and studies on the hemicelluloses, Paper Trade J.122 (1946), pp. 3543Search in Google Scholar

17 TAPPI 222 cm-02: Acid Insoluble Lignin in Wood and Pulp (2002), TAPPI, Atlanta, USASearch in Google Scholar

18 TAPPI T 204 cm-97: Solvent Extractives of Wood and Pulp (1997), TAPPI, test methodSearch in Google Scholar

19 NF B 51 004: Wood, Determination of Moisture (1985), AFNOR, French standardSearch in Google Scholar

20 NF B 51 005: Determining the Density of the Wood (1985), AFNOR, French standardSearch in Google Scholar

21 NF 51-006: Determination of Shrinkage (1985), AFNOR, French standardSearch in Google Scholar

22 EN 408: Bending Test (2010), European standardSearch in Google Scholar

23 NF B 51-007: Axial Compression Test (1985), AFNOR, French standardSearch in Google Scholar

24 EN 314-1: Shear Test (2004), European standardSearch in Google Scholar

25 K. N.Law, X.Jiang: Comparative papermaking properties of oil-palm empty fruit bunch, Tappi J. (2001), Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 113Search in Google Scholar

26 L. J.Alcaide, I. S.Parra, F. L.Baldovin: Characterization of Spanish agricultural residues with a view in obtaining cellulose pulp, Tappi J.73 (1990), No. 8, pp. 173177Search in Google Scholar

27 M.Boudet: Lignin and lignification: Selected issues, Plant Physiol. Biochem.38 (2000), pp. 819610.1016/S0981-9428(00)00166-2Search in Google Scholar

28 R.Zhong, J. J.Taylor, Z. H.Ye: Disruption of interfascicular fiber differentiation in an Arabidopsis mutant, Plant Cell9 (1997), pp. 2159217010.1105/tpc.9.12.2159Search in Google Scholar

29 P.Khristova, O.Kordsachia, T.Khider: Alkaline pulping with additives of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan, Bioresource Techno.96 (2005), pp. 7985http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.05.00Search in Google Scholar

30 M. M. S.El Morsy: Studies on the rachis of Egyptian date palm leaves for hardboard production, Fibre Sci. Technol.13 (1980), No. 4, pp. 317321http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0015-0568(80)90018-4Search in Google Scholar

31 C.Skaar: Wood-Water Relations, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany (1988) 10.1007/978-3-642-73683-4Search in Google Scholar

32 G.Tsoumis: Science and Technology of Wood – Structure, Properties and Utilization, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA (1991)Search in Google Scholar

33 J. C. F.Walker, B. G.Butterfield, T. A. G.Langrish, J. M.Harris, J. M.Uprichard: Primary Wood Processing, 1st Edition, Chapman and Hall, London, UK (1993) 10.1007/978-94-015-8110-3Search in Google Scholar

34 J. L.Bowyer, R.Shmulsky, J. G.Haygreen: Forest Products and Wood Science – An Introduction, 4th Edition, Blackwell Publishing Company (2004), Iowa state Press, USASearch in Google Scholar

35 M. KeramatJahromi, A.Jafari, S. S.Mohtasebi, S.Rafiee: Engineering properties of date palm trunk applicable in designing a climber machine, Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal, Manuscript FP 08 002, (2008), Vol. XSearch in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2014-10-01
Published in Print: 2014-03-03

© 2014, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Scroll Up Arrow