Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 1, 2014

Statistical Evaluation of Phenol Degradation by Ozone Oxidation

Statistische Auswertung des Phenolabbaus mittels Ozon-Oxidation
  • Ayman A. El-Midany , Reda M. Mohamed and Ibrahim A. Ibrahim
From the journal Materials Testing


Phenol is a major environmental contaminant produced by various industries. In this study, phenol degradation was achieved using ozone treatment. The main parameter affecting the phenol degradation, i. e., ozone concentration, H2O2/phenol molar ratio and reaction time, were studied using statistical design of experiments to optimize the phenol degradation in terms of studied parameters. The results of the statistical design indicated that the ozone oxidation can be used for phenol degradation reaching high efficiency of 100 %. It was indicated that there is not only one condition at which the complete degradation can be carried out but also several design points lead to the same results. For instance, the complete degradation can be achieved at six hours reaction time, 0.03 H2O2/phenol molar ratio, and 10 g/m3 ozone concentration.


Phenol ist ein bedeutender Umwelt-Schadstoff, der in verschiedenen Industriezweigen produziert wird. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde ein Phenolabbau in Phenol/H2O2-Mischungen mittels einer Ozonbehandlung durchgeführt. Die Haupteinflussfaktoren der Phenoldegradation sind die Ozonkonzentration, das molare H2O2/Phenol-Verhältnis und die Reaktionszeit, welche mittels statistischen Versuchsaufbaus untersucht wurde, um den Phenolabbau zu optimieren. Die Ergebnisse dieser statistischen Untersuchung zeigen, dass die Oxidation mit Ozon für die Phenoldegradation mit hoher Effizienz von bis zu 100 % durchgeführt werden kann. Es deutete sich auch an, dass nicht nur eine Bedingung existiert, unter der eine vollständige Degradation erreicht werden kann, sondern auch, dass mehrere Designpunkte zu denselben Ergebnissen führen. Beispielsweise kann der vollständige Abbau bei einer Reaktionszeit von sechs Stunden, einem molaren H2O2/Phenol-Verhältnis von 0,03 und einer Ozonkonzentration von 10 g/m3 erreicht werden.

* Correspondence Adress, Dr. Ayman A. El-Midany, Mining, Petroleum and Metallurgy Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Orman – Giza, Postal Code 12613, Egypt, E-Mail:

Dr. Ayman El-Midany, (1969) is an associate professor at Mining, Petroleum and Metallurgical Engineering Dept. Dr. El-Midany has graduated from University of Florida, Materials science and engineering Dept. in 2004. He has worked as a post doctor at ERC, University of Florida. He gained a general knowledge of ceramics, surface chemistry, and surface characterization, use of surfactants and polymers in dispersion/flocculation, surface modification as well as his experience with experimental designs and statistical data analysis.

Prof. I. A. Ibrahim (1956) is the Chairman of central Metallurgical R&D Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt. He has a lot of experience in the field of sol-gel processing and photocatalytic degradation organic materials from industrial wastewaters. He has a significant experience in the photocatalytic degradation of cyanides and phenol from waste streams using mixed oxides photocatalysts and ozone.

Dr. R. M. Mohamed (1975) is a Associate Researcher at CMRDI. Currently, He worked as an Associate Professor of chemistry at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. He has a great experience in synthesis of mixed oxides via sol-gel techniques. This experience also covers wide range of processing for preparation of TiO2-SiO2 and V2O5-SiO2 aerogel and xerogel photocatalysts for removal of cyanides and organic compounds.


1 A. M.Peir'o, J. A.Ayll'on, J.Peral, X.Dom'enech: TIO2-photocatalyzed degradation of phenol and ortho-substituted phenolic compounds, Applied Catalysis B, Environmental, 30 (2001), pp. 359373.10.1016/S0926-3373(00)00248-4Search in Google Scholar

2 J.Arana, E. T.Rendon, J. M. D.Rodriyguez, J. A. H.Melian, O. G.Diyaz, J. P.Pena: Highly concentrated phenolic wastewater treatment by the Photo-Fenton reaction, mechanism study by FTIR-ATR, Chemosphere44 (2001), pp. 10171023Search in Google Scholar

3 J.Chen, W. H.Rulkens, H.Bruning: Photochemical elimination of phenols and cod in industrial wastewaters, Water Science and Technology, 35(1997), pp. 23123810.1016/S0273-1223(97)00030-9Search in Google Scholar

4 A. J.Feitz, B. H.Boyden, T. D.Waite: Evaluation of two solar pilot scale fixed-bed photocatalytic reactors, Water Research, 34 (2000), pp. 39273932. 10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00153-6Search in Google Scholar

5 J.Giménez, D.Curcó, M. A.Queral: Photocatalytic treatment of phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in a solar plant in the way to scaling-up, Catalysis Today54 (1999), pp. 22924310.1016/S0920-5861(99)00185-6Search in Google Scholar

6 A. M.Braun, E.Oliveros: How to evaluate photochemical methods for water treatment, Water Science and Technology35 (1997), pp. 172310.1016/S0273-1223(97)00004-8Search in Google Scholar

7 R.Andreozzi, V.Caprio, A.Insola, R.Marotta: Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for water purification and recovery, Catalysis Today53 (1999), pp 515910.1016/S0920-5861(99)00102-9Search in Google Scholar

8 G. E. P.Box, D. W.Behnken: Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Technometrics2 (1960), pp. 4557510.2307/1266454Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2014-10-01
Published in Print: 2014-03-03

© 2014, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Downloaded on 3.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button