Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 1, 2014

Investigation of Wood Materials by Combined Application of X-ray and Neutron Imaging Techniques*

Charakterisierung von Holz mit komplementären Röntgen- und Neutronenbildgebungsverfahren
  • Roberto Triolo , Graziella Giambona , Fabrizio Lo Celso , Irene Ruffo , Nikolay Kardjilov , André Hilger , Andreas Paulke and Ingo Manke
From the journal Materials Testing


Conservation of cultural heritage is extremely important not only from a cultural point of view, but also from a practical one. It is our duty to pass on to future generations the cultural heritage left to us by our ancestors. Wood is one of the most common materials used to generate works of art which are in a state of constant change and/or deterioration. In order to optimize the knowledge of artworks together with their conservation, it is necessary to use the most advanced scientific and technological tools. In the following paper, we will show the tomographic results which can be achieved by application of complementary techniques based on the combined use of X-ray and neutron radiography as structural probes.


Die Konservierung von Kulturgütern ist von großer Bedeutung nicht nur in kultureller Hinsicht, sondern auch unter praktischen Gesichtspunkten. Wir müssen uns der Aufgabe stellen, unseren Nachfahren das kulturelle Netz weiterzugeben, das uns von unseren Ahnen überliefert wurde. Das Holz, eines der gebräuchlichsten Materialien für Kunstwerke, ist einem ständigen Prozess unterworfen, der zu Veränderungen und/oder seinem Zerfall führt. Um die Kenntnis von historisch-künstlerischen Fundstücken zu optimieren und ihre Konservierung zu ermöglichen, ist die Anwendung der besten wissenschaftlichen sowie technischen Technologien unerlässlich. Im Folgenden zeigen wir einige der computertomographischen Ergebnisse, die durch Anwendung komplementärer Messtechniken bei kombinierter Verwendung von Röntgenstrahlen und Neutronen erzielt werden können.

** Correspondence Address, Dr. Fabrizio Lo Celso, University of Palermo, E-Mail:

Roberto Triolo is full Professor at the University of Palermo, Italy for more than 30 years. He is very active in the field of neutron and X-ray scattering concerning mostly soft matters, polymers and cultural heritage. Among his many published works, the study of dynamical and structural properties of block copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide lead in 1997 to the Green Chemistry Presidential Award. His later activities were focused on the application of neutron techniques to archaeological artifacts.

Graziella Giambona has achieved her PhD in chemistry in 2011 and her final thesis work was on neutron tomography on archaeological samples. Her investigation were focused on objects belonging to roman shipwrecks mainly from the Mediterranean area. Another area of research is the investigation of structural modifications of treated wood with neutron and X-ray tomography.

Dr. Fabrizio Lo Celso is currently a faculty staff member at Physics and Chemistry department at University of Palermo, Italy. He has finished his PhD in chemistry at University of Palermo in 1998, and his final work was on a computational approach to study equilibrium properties of molten salts mixtures. During his post-doc periods in Missouri (USA), Palermo (Italy) and Jülich (Germany), he has focused his attention on various scattering techniques involving both neutron and X-ray technology. Among his current interest there is the molecular dynamics on ionic liquids and polymers.

Dr. rer. nat. Nikolay Kardjilov is responsible for the neutron tomography instrument CONRAD at HZB Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany. He studied physics at Sofia University, Bulgaria, where he received his MSc degree. Thereafter, he successfully completed his PhD work in the field of neutron tomography at the department of physical science at TU Munich. In 2003 he started working at HZB, where he set up a new neutron tomography instrument. His research topics are the development and application of radiographic and tomographic techniques with neutrons.

Dr. Ing. André Hilger is currently responsible for the technical development of neutron tomography at HZB. As PhD student he worked on the research topic “Tomography with spin-polarised neutrons He studied technical physics at the University of Applied Science (TFH) Berlin, Germany. After receiving his bachelor degree he worked as a technician between 2001 and 2006 at HZB as well as at TFH. In 2006 he obtained his MSc degree at TFH.

Dipl.-Phys. Andreas Paulke studied physics at the Technische Universität Berlin, Germany. He worked several years on the application of X-ray tomography on various fields and on the analysis of 3D data.

Dr. rer. nat. Ingo Manke is head of the imaging group at Helmholtz Centre Berlin, Germany. He studied physics at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany. He finished his PhD at TU Berlin, Germany in 2002 in the field of scanning nearfield microscopy. Afterwards he worked at Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration. Since 2003 he has worked at HZB with research interests in the development and application of radiographic and tomographic techniques with neutron and X-ray technology.


revised paper from Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage 10, pp. 143–158 ISSN 1973-9494 (2010),


1 J.Banhart (Ed.): Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 200810.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

2 A.Hofmann: The Physics of Synchrotron Radiation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 200410.1017/CBO9780511534973Search in Google Scholar

3 M.Strobl, I.Manke, N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, M.Dawson, J.Banhart: Journal of Physics D – Applied Physics42 (2009), p. 24300110.1088/0022-3727/42/24/243001Search in Google Scholar

4 N.Kardjilov, I.Manke, A.Hilger, M.Strobl, J.Banhart: Materials Today14 (2011), p. 24810.1016/S1369-7021(11)70139-0Search in Google Scholar

5 B.Schillinger, E.Lehmann, P.Vontobel: Physica B: Condensed Matter59 (2000), pp. 276278Search in Google Scholar

6 S. R.Stock: International Materials Reviews53 (2008), p. 12910.1179/174328008X277803Search in Google Scholar

7 E. H.Lehmann, P.Vontobel, E.Deschler-Erb, M.Soares: Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A542 (2005), p. 6810.1016/j.nima.2005.01.013Search in Google Scholar

8 J.Rant, T.Nemec, Z.Milic, G.Pregl: Application of neutron radiography in archaeology, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. of the Slovenian Society for Nondestructive Testing, 24th–25th April 1997, Ljubljana, SloveniaSearch in Google Scholar

9 J. J.Rant, Z.Milic, P.Turk, I.Lengar: Neutron radiography as a NDT method in archaeology, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. of the Slovenian Society for Non-Destructive Testing, Sept. 1st–3rd, 2005, Portorož, Slovenia, pp. 181188Search in Google Scholar

10 R.Triolo, N.Kardjilov, G.Giambona, F.Lo Celso, V.Benfante, S.Tusa, I.Ruffo: Atti Accademia Scienze Lettere Arti Palermo XXV (2009), pp. 133148Search in Google Scholar

11 J.Banhart, A.Borbely, K.Dzieciol, F.Garcia-Moreno, I.Manke, N.Kardjilov, A. R.Kaysser-Pyzalla, M.Strobl, W.Treimer: International Journal of Materials Research101 (2010), p. 106910.3139/146.110382Search in Google Scholar

12 S. H.Williams, A.Hilger, N.Kardjilov, I.Manke, M.Strobl, P. A.Douissard, T.Martin, H.Riesemeier, J.Banhart: Journal of Instrumentation7 (2012), p. 02014Search in Google Scholar

13 C.Tötzke, I.Manke, T.Arlt, H.Markötter, N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, P.Krüger, C.Hartnig, J.Scholta, J.Banhart: Journal of Power Sources196 (2011), p. 463110.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.01.049Search in Google Scholar

14 M. A.Hickner, N. P.Siegel, K. S.Chen, D. S.Hussey, D. L.Jacobson, M.Arif: Journal of The Electrochemical Society155 (2008) B42710.1149/1.2826287Search in Google Scholar

15 E. H.Lehmann, G.Frei, G.Kuhne, P.Boillat: Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A.576 (2007), p. 38910.1016/j.nima.2007.03.017Search in Google Scholar

16 N.Kardjilov, M.Dawson, A.Hilger, I.Manke, M.Strobl, D.Penumadu, K. H.Kim, F.Garcia-Moreno, J.Banhart: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A651 (2011),p. 9510.1016/j.nima.2011.02.084Search in Google Scholar

17 L.Gondek, N. B.Selvaraj, J.Czub, H.Figiel, D.Chapelle, N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, I.Manke: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy36 (2011), p. 975110.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.05.089Search in Google Scholar

18 H.Markötter, I.Manke, P.Krüger, T.Arlt, J.Haussmann, M.Klages, H.Riesemeier, C.Hartnig, J.Scholta, J.Banhart: Electrochemistry Communications13 (2011), p. 100110.1016/j.elecom.2011.06.023Search in Google Scholar

19 W.Maier, T.Arlt, C.Wannek, I.Manke, H.Riesemeier, P.Krüger, J.Scholta, W.Lehnert, J.Banhart, D.Stolten: Electrochemistry Communications12 (2010), p. 143610.1016/j.elecom.2010.08.002Search in Google Scholar

20 S.Zabler, A.Rueda, A.Rack, H.Riesemeier, P.Zaslansky, I.Manke, F.Garcia-Moreno, J.Banhart: Acta Materialia55 (2007), p. 504510.1016/j.actamat.2007.05.028Search in Google Scholar

21 S.Zabler, A.Rack, I.Manke, K.Thermann, J.Tiedemann, N.Harthill, H.Riesemeier: Journal of Structural Geology30 (2008), p. 87610.1016/j.jsg.2008.03.002Search in Google Scholar

22 I.Manke, H.Markoetter, C.Totzke, N.Kardjilov, R.Grothausmann, M.Dawson, C.Hartnig, S.Haas, D.Thomas, A.Hoell, C.Genzel, J.Banhart: Adv. Eng. Mater.13 (2011), p. 71210.1002/adem.201000284Search in Google Scholar

23 R.Kuhn, J.Scholta, P.Krueger, C.Hartnig, W.Lehnert, T.Arlt, I.Manke: Journal of Power Sources196 (2011), p. 523110.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.025Search in Google Scholar

24 R. J.Bellows, M. Y.Lin, M.Arif, A. K.Thompson, D.Jacobson: Journal of the Electrochemical Society146 (1999), p. 109910.1149/1.1391727Search in Google Scholar

25 G. V.Riley, D. S.Hussey, D. L.Jacobson, in: Z.Ogumi, N. J.Dudney, S. R.Narayanan (Eds): Battery/Energy Technology Vol. 25 (2010), p. 75Search in Google Scholar

26 F.Pfeiffer, T.Weitkamp, O.Bunk, C.David: Nature Physics2 (2006), p. 25810.1038/nphys265Search in Google Scholar

27 F.Pfeiffer, M.Bech, O.Bunk, P.Kraft, E. F.Eikenberry, C.Bronnimann, C.Grunzweig, C.David: Nature Materials7 (2008), p. 13410.1038/nmat2096Search in Google Scholar

28 A.King, G.Johnson, D.Engelberg, W.Ludwig, J.Marrow: Science321 (2008), p. 38210.1080/00358537208453036Search in Google Scholar

29 M.Strobl, W.Treimer, C.Ritzoulis, A. G.Wagh, S.Abbas, I.Manke: J. Appl. Crystallogr,.40 (2007), p. 46310.1107/S0021889807007856Search in Google Scholar

30 B. E.Allman, P. J.McMahon, K. A.Nugent, D.Paganin, D. L.Jacobson, M.Arif, S. A.Werner: Nature408 (2000), p. 15810.1080/00222937008696175Search in Google Scholar

31 N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, I.Manke, M.Strobl, M.Dawson, J.Banhart: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A605 (2009), p. 1310.1016/j.nima.2009.01.162Search in Google Scholar

32 M.Strobl, C.Pappas, A.Hilger, S.Wellert, N.Kardjilov, S. O.Seidel, I.Manke: Physica B: Condensed Matter406 (2011), p. 241510.1016/j.physb.2010.10.029Search in Google Scholar

33 N.Kardjilov, I.Manke, A.Hilger, S.Williams, M.Strobl, R.Woracek, M.Boin, E.Lehmann, D.Penumadu, J.Banhart: International Journal of Materials Research103 (2012), p. 15110.3139/146.110673Search in Google Scholar

34 M.Strobl, R.Woracek, N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, R.Wimpory, A.Tremsin, T.Wilpert, C.Schulz, I.Manke, D.Penumadu: Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A.680 (2012), p. 2710.1016/j.nima.2012.04.026Search in Google Scholar

35 J. R.Santisteban, L.Edwards, M. E.Fitzpatrick, A.Steuwer, P. J.Withers, M. R.Daymond, M. W.Johnson, N.Rhodes, E. M.Schooneveld: Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A.481 (2002), p. 76510.1016/S0168-9002(01)01256-6Search in Google Scholar

36 J. R.Santisteban, L.Edwards, M. E.Fizpatrick, A.Steuwer, P. J.Withers: Appl. Phys. A.74 (2002), p. 1433Search in Google Scholar

37 R.Woracek, D.Penumadu, N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, M.Strobl, R. C.Wimpory, I.Manke, J.Banhart: Journal of Applied Physics109 (2011), p. 09350610.1063/1.3582138Search in Google Scholar

38 L.Josic, E. H.Lehmann, A.Kaestner: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A (2010) 10.1016/j.nima.2010.12.120Search in Google Scholar

39 I.Manke, N.Kardjilov, R.Schäfer, A.Hilger, M.Strobl, M.Dawson, C.Grünzweig, G.Behr, M.Hentschel, C.David, A.Kupsch, A.Lange, J.Banhart: Nature Communications1 (2010), p. 12510.1038/ncomms1125Search in Google Scholar PubMed

40 S. W.Lee, K. Y.Kim, O. Y.Kwon, N.Kardjlov, M.Dawson, A.Hilger, I.Manke: Applied Physics Express3 (2010), p. 10660210.1143/APEX.3.106602Search in Google Scholar

41 M.Dawson, I.Manke, N.Kardjilov, M.Strobl, A.Hilger, J.Banhart: British Institute of Radiology, Highlight Newsletter 2008Search in Google Scholar

42 N.Kardjilov, I.Manke, M.Strobl, A.Hilger, W.Treimer, M.Meissner, T.Krist, J.Banhart: Nature Physics4 (2008), p. 39910.1038/nphys912Search in Google Scholar

43 I.Manke, N.Kardjilov, M.Strobl, A.Hilger, J.Banhart: Journal of Applied Physics104 (2008), p. 07610910.1063/1.2992516Search in Google Scholar

44 M.Strobl, W.Treimer, P.Walter, S.Keil, I.Manke: Applied Physics Letters91 (2007), p. 25410410.1063/1.2825276Search in Google Scholar

45 N.Kardjilov, A.Hilger, I.Manke, M.Strobl, M.Dawson, S.Williams, J.Banhart: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A651 (2011), p. 4710.1016/j.nima.2011.01.067Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2014-10-01
Published in Print: 2014-03-03

© 2014, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Downloaded on 28.11.2023 from
Scroll to top button