Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 23, 2016

Mechanical behavior of a multiple forged 6082 Al alloy

Mechanisches Verhalten einer mehrfach geschmiedeten 6082-Aluminiumlegierung
  • Tareg S. Ben Naser and György Krallics
From the journal Materials Testing


6082 Al alloy was investigated in its initial state (IS) and in its multiple forged (MF) state. The MF specimens were obtained using multi-step closed die forging. A cold compression test at room temperature was accomplished in order to measure the deformation anisotropy of MF specimens; it was also used to obtain the standard stress-strain curve. The homogeneity and structure were both evaluated by Vickers hardness measurements. While image analysis was based on optical microscopy investigations. Moreover, the open and closed die forging were simulated using Simufact software. The results showed the effects of the multiple forging process on the material. The outcome of the hardness measurement demonstrated the homogeneity of the structure. Whereas the micrographs described the microstructure development (during the multiple forging process) and the change of the grains shape over the cross section of the MF specimen.


Für den vorliegenden Beitrag wurde eine Aluminiumlegierung 6082 im ursprünglichen (Initial State (IS)) und im mehrfach geschmiedeten Zustand (Multiple Forged (MF)) untersucht. Die MF-Proben wurden mittels eines mehrstufigen Gesenkschmiedeprozesses hergestellt. Es wurde ein Kaltstauchversuch bei Raumtemperatur durchgeführt, um die Deformationsanisotropie der MF-Proben zu ermitteln, und um die Standard-Spannungs-Dehnungs-Kurven zu bestimmen. Außerdem wurden Härtemessungen durchgeführt. Die Homogenität und die Struktur des Werkstoffes wurden unter Vergleich der Vickershärte und der Bildanalyse basierend auf lichtmikroskopischen Untersuchungen ermittelt. Darüber hinaus wurde das Freiformschmieden und das Gesenkschmieden mittels der Software Simufact simuliert. Die Ergebnisse zeigten die Einflüsse des Mehrfachschmiede-Prozesses auf den Werkstoff. Die Härtemessungen wiesen auf die Strukturhomogenität hin und die Gefügeaufnahmen zeigten die Mikrostrukturentwicklung während des Mehrfachschmiedeprozesses sowie die Veränderungen der Kornform innerhalb des Querschnitts der MF-Proben.

*Correspondence Address, Tareg S. Ben Naser, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rakpart 3, 1111 Budapest, Hungary. E-mail:

Ben Naser, born in 1972, is a PhD student in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary. His research interests lie in ultrafine grain bulk materials and materials testing.

Associate Prof. Dr. György Krallics, born in 1951, has research interests in plastic deformation of metals, modeling of metal forming processes, bulk nanostructured metals as well as fracture and fatigue. Since 1993, he has been Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.


1 ASM Handbook, Volume 2: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special- Purpose Metals, 10th Ed., ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA (1990)Search in Google Scholar

2 S. V.Zherebtsov, G. A.Salishchev, R. M.Galeyev, O. R.Valiakhmetov, S. YuMironov, S. L.Semiatin: Production of submicrocrystalline structure in large-scale Ti-6Al-4 V billet by warm severe deformation processing, Scripta Materialia51 (2004), pp. 1147115110.1016/j.scriptamat.2004.08.018Search in Google Scholar

3 R. Z.Valiev, R. K.Islamgaliev, I. V.Alexandrov: Bulk nanostructured materials from severe plastic deformation, Progress in Materials Science (2000) 45, pp. 10318910.1016/S0079-6425(99)00007-9Search in Google Scholar

4 B. Q.Han, F. A.Mohamed, E. J.Lavernia: Tensile behavior of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine grained aluminum alloys, Journal of Materials Science38 (2003), pp. 3319332410.1023/A:1025150407956Search in Google Scholar

5 S. Y.Chang, J. G.Lee, K. T.Park, D. H.Shin: Microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed 5083 Al alloy, Materials Transactions42 (2001), No. 6, pp. 1074108010.2320/matertrans.42.1074Search in Google Scholar

6 G. A.Salishchev, R. M.Galeev, S. P.Malysheva, S. V.Zherebtsov, S. YuMironov, O. R.Valiakhmetov, É. I.Ivanisenko: Formation of submicrocrystalline structure in titanium and titanium alloys and their mechanical properties, Metal Science and Heat Treatment48 (2006), pp. 636910.1007/s11041-006-0045-7Search in Google Scholar

7 R. R.Mulyukov, R. M.Imayev, A. A.Nazarov: Production, properties and application prospects of bulk nanostructured materials, Journal of Materials Science43 (2008), pp. 7257726310.1007/s10853-008-2777-9Search in Google Scholar

8 T.Sakai, H.Miura, X.Yang: Ultrafine grain formation in face centered cubic metals during severe plastic deformation, Materials Science and Engineering A499 (2009), pp. 2610.1016/j.msea.2007.11.098Search in Google Scholar

9 R.Kapoor, A.Sarkar, R.Yogi, S. K.Shekhawat, I.Samajdar, J. K.Chakravartty: Softening of Al during multi-axial forging in channel die, Materials Science and Engineering A560 (2013), pp. 40441210.1016/j.msea.2012.09.085Search in Google Scholar

10 Qing-fengZhu, LeiLi, Chun-yanBan, Zhi-haoZhao, Yu-boZuo, Jian-zhongCui: Structure uniformity and limits of grain refinement of high purity aluminum during multi-directional forging process at room temperature, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China24 (2014), pp. 1301130610.1016/S1003-6326(14)63192-7Search in Google Scholar

11 K. B.Nie, K. K.Deng, X. J.Wang, F. J.Xu, K.Wu, M. Y.Zheng: Multidirectional forging of AZ91 magnesium alloy and its effects on microstructures and mechanical properties, Materials Science and Engineering A624 (2015), pp. 15716810.1016/j.msea.2014.11.076Search in Google Scholar

12 QiangChen, DayuShu, ChuankaiHu, ZudaZhao, BaoguoYuan: Grain refinement in an as-cast AZ61 magnesium alloy processed by multi-axial forging under the multi temperature processing procedure, Materials Science and Engineering A541 (2012), pp. 9810410.1016/j.msea.2012.02.009Search in Google Scholar

13 A. K.Padap, G. P.Chaudhari, V.Pancholi, S. K.Nath: Warm multiaxial forging of AISI 1016 steel, Materials and Design31 (2010), pp. 3816382410.1016/j.matdes.2010.03.030Search in Google Scholar

14 W. C.Liu, M. B.Chen, H.Yuan: Evolution of microstructure in severely deformed AA3104 aluminum alloy by multiple constrained compression, Materials Science and Engineering A528 (2011), pp. 5405541010.1016/j.msea.2011.03.100Search in Google Scholar

15 Xiang-shengXia, MingChen, Yong-jinLu, Fu-youFan, Chun-huaZhu, JingHuang, Tain-quanDeng, Shi-fengZhu: Microstructure and mechanical properties of isothermal multi- axial forging formed AZ61 Mg alloy, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China23 (2013), pp. 3186319210.1016/S1003-6326(13)62851-4Search in Google Scholar

16 T.Sakai, A.Belyakov, R.Kaibyshev, H.Miura, J. J.Jonas: Dynamic and post dynamic recrystallization under hot, cold and severe plastic deformation conditions, Progress in Materials Science60 (2014), pp. 13020710.1016/j.pmatsci.2013.09.002Search in Google Scholar

17 S.Ringeval, J. H.Driver: Multiple forging textures and microstructures in Al alloys, Materials Science Forum550 (2007), pp. 18119210.4028/ in Google Scholar

18 A. K.Padap, G. P.Chaudhari, V.Pancholi, S. K.Nath: Ultrafine grained steel fabricated using warm multiaxial forging: Microstructure and mechanical properties, Materials Science and Engineering A527 (2009), pp. 11011710.1016/j.msea.2009.08.066Search in Google Scholar

19 A.Rezaee-Bazzaz, S.Ahmadian: Modeling of mechanical behavior of ultrafine grained aluminum produced by multiple compression in a channel die, Materials and Design34 (2012), pp. 23023410.1016/j.matdes.2011.08.013Search in Google Scholar

20 M.Štamborská, M.KvíIala, V.Mareš: Process of Identifying Stress Fields from Strain Fields in the Specimen with a Hole, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, ISRN Materials Science (2013)10.1155/2013/536069Search in Google Scholar

21 Shu-liLi, RunWu, Yuan-zhengWei, Zhi-fangWu, Xue-junZhou, Yong-fuZhang, GuangXu: Correlation of morphological anisotropy and Lankford value of deep drawing sheets hot rolled by compact strip production, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials19 (2012), No. 10, pp. 93493810.1007/s12613-012-0650-ySearch in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2016-05-23
Published in Print: 2016-06-01

© 2016, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Downloaded on 9.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button