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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 21, 2017

Optimizing the visibility of X-ray phase grating interferometry

Optimierung der Visibilität der Röntgen-Phasengitter-Interferometrie
Yury Shashev, Andreas Kupsch, Axel Lange, Sergei Evsevleev, Bernd R. Müller, Markus Osenberg, Ingo Manke, Manfred P. Hentschel and Giovanni Bruno
From the journal Materials Testing


The performance of grating interferometers coming up now for imaging interfaces within materials depends on the efficiency (visibility) of their main component, namely the phase grating. Therefore, experiments with monochromatic synchrotron radiation and corresponding simulations are carried out. The visibility of a phase grating is optimized by different photon energies, varying detector to grating distances and continuous rotation of the phase grating about the grid lines. Such kind of rotation changes the projected grating shapes, and thereby the distribution profiles of phase shifts. This yields higher visibilities than derived from ideal rectangular shapes. By continuous grating rotation and variation of the propagation distance, we achieve 2D visibility maps. Such maps provide the visibility for a certain combination of grating orientation and detector position. Optimum visibilities occur at considerably smaller distances than in the standard setup.


Die Leistungsfähigkeit von Gitterinterferometern, die zunehmend für die Abbildung von Grenzflächen in Materialien genutzt werden, hängt vor allem von der Wirksamkeit (Visibiliät) ihrer wesentlichen Komponenten, dem Phasengitter ab. Dazu werden experimentelle Untersuchungen mit monochromatischer Synchrotronstrahlung und die entsprechenden Modellrechnungen durchgeführt. Die Visibilität eines Phasengitters wird bezüglich unterschiedlicher Photonenenergien, Detektorabstände und der kontinuierlichen Drehung um die Stegachse des Gitters optimiert. Eine derartige Drehung ändert das projizierte Gitterprofil und somit das Verteilungsprofil der Phasenverschiebung. Damit ergeben sich höhere Visibilitäten als mit idealen Rechteckprofilen. Als Ergebnis der kontinuierlichen Drehung des Gitters und der Detektorabstände resultieren 2D-Visibilitäts-Muster. Derartige Darstellungen geben die Visibilität für diskrete Kombinationen von Drehwinkel und Detektorposition wieder. Die optimalen Visibilitäten entstehen bei erheblich kürzeren Entfernungen als in der konventionellen Anordnung.

*Correspondence Address, Dr. Andreas Kupsch, BAM-8.5, „Mikro-ZFP“, 12205 Berlin, Germany, E-mail:

Dipl.-Ing. Yury Shashev, was born in Glasow (Russia) in 1986. He studied at National University of Science and Technology (MISIS), Moscow, Russia, Phsico-chemical Processes and Materials, and at TU Freiberg, Institute of Materials Science, Germany. Since 2014, he has been working on his PhD at BAM (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing), Berlin, Germany inthe division “Micro NDE” on imaging for nondestructive material testing.

Dr. rer. nat. Andreas Kupsch, born in 1968, studied Physics at Dresden University of Technology, Germany, where he completed his PhD thesis on structural properties of quasicrystals in 2004. Since then, he has been affiliated with BAM, Berlin, Germany. In 2014, he became Senior Scientist at BAM. His main activities are all related to high energy X-ray crystallography, computed tomography and refractive imaging. He is a lecturer at Dresden International University (DIU).

Dipl.-Phys. Axel Lange, born in 1948, studied Physics at Technical University Berlin (TUB), Germany, where he received his MSc. After basic research in X-ray analysis of amorphous materials at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, he became Research Associate at BAM, where he designed and operated several unique X-ray diffraction and refraction topography instruments. He is also the main inventor of the iterative CT algorithm DIRECTT. He retired in 2015.

M.Sc. Sergei Evsevleev, born in 1991, studied Nondestructive Testing at Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia, and Dresden International University, Germany. He graduated with a double degree in 2016. Since then, he has been working at BAM, dealing with 3D evaluation of tomographic data.

Dr. rer. nat. Bernd R. Müller, born in 1957, studied Physics at Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, where he presented his thesis in Atomic Physics in 1990. After several years in basic research at several European synchrotron facilities, he joined the X-ray Topography Group at BAM, Berlin, Germany in 1995. At BESSY, Berlin, he has constructed the BAM beamline. His activities focus on the development and application of new techniques in high energy synchrotron topography and computed tomography. He is Deputy of division Micro NDE at BAM. He is a lecturer at Technical University Berlin. In 2015, he received the Science Award of the DGZfP.

M.Sc. Markus Osenberg studied Physics at Technical University Berlin (TUB), Germany. From 2012 to 2016, he worked as a student associate at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Germany. Since 2016, he has been working as a PhD student at TUB analyzing novel battery materials by X-ray, ion and electron based imaging techniques.

Dr. rer. nat. Ingo Manke has been Head of the “Imaging Group“ atHelmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy (HZB), Germany for 10 years. He studied Physics and finished his PhD at TU Berlin, Germany in 2002 in the field of scanning probe microscopy. Since 2003, he has been working at HZB with research interests in the development and application of radiographic and tomographic measurement techniques using neutrons and X-rays.

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Manfred P. Hentschel, born in 1943, studied Physics at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, where he received his PhD in 1981. His postdoctoral activities focused on X-ray and neutron scattering of biomembranes and polymers. Since 1987, new X-ray topography techniques for nondestructive evaluation of advanced materials have been developed under his leadership at BAM, Berlin, Germany. In 2000, he was awarded the Roentgen Medal. After retirement, he is now an external collaborator at Technical University Berlin and lecturing on polymer testing.

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Bruno, born in 1966, studied Nuclear Engineering and Physics at the University of Bologna, Italy. He got his PhD in Materials Science at the University of Ancona, Italy, in 1997 and was post-doc at Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, and at Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Germany, before becoming project leader at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, always working on residual stress analysis and mechanical properties of metals and ceramics. He then worked at Corning Incorporated, in leading positions in France and USA He is Head of division 8.5 “Micro NDE” at BAM, Berlin, Germany and Professor at the University of Potsdam, Germany since 2012.


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Published Online: 2017-11-21
Published in Print: 2017-11-15

© 2017, Carl Hanser Verlag, München