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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 21, 2017

Characterization and properties of industrial polymer matrix composite sanitarywares

Charakterisierung und Eigenschaften von industriellen Sanitärprodukten aus Polymermatrixkompositen
Gökhan Açıkbaş and Hasan Göçmez
From the journal Materials Testing

Abstract

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) play an increasingly important role in everyday life from energy conservation to national security. Recently, PMCs have been found to be used for sanitaryware due to their low density, giving a sense of warmth, which allows application for broad aesthetic features, high impact resistance, the ease of shaping and the possibility to produce thin sections. It is an alternative to ceramic sanitaryware products. While thin section PMC products range in the forefront with lightness and aesthetic features, thick section PMC products are aroused interest because of the impact resistance and ease of production. Little attention is devoted to the characterization of PMC sanitarywares up to date. Therefore, in order to identify manufacturing processes and determination of the chemical and mineralogical composition, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with SE, BSE and EDX detector, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and thermogravimetric (TG/DTA) analysis of commercial PMC sanitarywares with two different structures (thick and thin sections) were carried out. Mechanical properties such as three-point flexural strength, flexural modulus and impact resistance were identified. As a result of these studies, matrix to filler ratio, filler shape, size and composition and manufacturing technique of PMC sanitarywares were determined. Such understanding is necessary in order to satisfy the market request and to improve the properties of the sanitarywares.

Kurzfassung

Polymermatrixkomposite (Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)) nehmen einen zunehmenden Stellenwert im täglichen Leben ein, angefangen von der Energieeinsparung bis hin zur nationalen Sicherheit. Kürzlich konnten PMCs in einer neuen Anwendung für Sanitärprodukte eingesetzt werden, und zwar aufgrund ihres geringen spezifischen Gewichtes, des Wärmegefühls, der möglichen Einsetzbarkeit für eine breite Palette von ästhetischen Merkmalen, der hohen Schlagfestigkeit sowie der einfachen Formgebung und der Möglichkeit, dünne Querschnitte produzieren zu können. Sie stellen eine Alternative zu keramischen Sanitärprodukten dar. Während dünnwandige PMC-Produkte aufgrund ihrer Leichtigkeit und ihrer ästhetischen Merkmale an erster Stelle stehen, haben auch dickwandige PMC-Produkte aufgrund ihrer Schlagfestigkeit und der leichten Herstellbarkeit Interesse geweckt. Allerdings wurde der Charakterisierung von PMC-Sanitärprodukten bisher wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Um daher Herstellprozesse zu identifizieren und um die chemische und mineralische Zusammensetzung zu bestimmen, wurden Lichtmikroskopie, Rasterelektronenmikroskopie mit SE-, BSE- und EDX-Detektor, Röntgendiffraktometrie (XRD), Röntgenfluoreszenz Spektroskopie (XRF) und Thermogravimetrische Analyse (TG/DTA) eingesetzt, um kommerzielle PMC-Sanitärprodukte mit zwei verschiedenen Strukturen (dünnwandig und dickwandig) zu untersuchen. Es wurden die mechanischen Eigenschaften, wie die Drei-Punkt-Biegefestigkeit und die Schlagfestigkeit ermittelt. Als ein Ergebnis der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurden das Verhältnis von Matrix zu Füllmaterial, die Füllwerkstoffform, -größe und -zusammensetzung sowie das Herstellverfahren ermittelt. Ein diesbezügliches Verständnis wird als notwendig erachtet, um die Marktanforderungen zu erfüllen und um die Eigenschaften der Sanitärprodukte zu verbessern.


*Correspondence Address, Assist. Prof. Dr. Gökhan Açıkbaş, Metallurgy Program, Vocational School, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Bilecik, Turkey, E-mail:

Assistant Prof. Dr. Gökhan Açıkbaş, born in 1979, studied Materials Science and Engineering with specialization in characterization of ceramics and polymer matrix composites. He received BSc and MSc degrees in Ceramic Engineering from Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey, in 2002 and 2007, respectively, and PhD degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the same university in 2016. He worked in TÜBİTAK Ceramic Research Center from 2003 to 2008 and in Eczacıbaşı Vitra Company from 2008 to 2011. Since 2011, he has been working at Bilecik Seyh Edebali University in Bilecik, Turkey.

Prof. Dr. Hasan Göçmez, born in 1971, received his BSc degree from the Department of Metallurgical Engineering of the University of Middle East Technical, Ankara, Turkey, in 1995, and his MSc and PhD degrees in Material/Ceramic Engineering from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, in 1997 and 2001, respectively. He has experience in ceramic processing, nanomaterials and photovoltaic materials. He is currently Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Dumlupinar University in Kutahya, Turkey.


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Published Online: 2017-11-21
Published in Print: 2017-11-15

© 2017, Carl Hanser Verlag, München