Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 11, 2013

Reactions in the sintering of MgAl2O4 spinel doped with LiF

  • Ivar E. Reimanis and Hans-Joachim Kleebe


Reactions between MgAl2O4 and LiF during low-temperature sintering have been examined by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the presence of LiF at elevated temperatures leads to the formation of a defect MgAl2O4 spinel phase containing oxygen vacancies due to the incorporation of both Li and F ions into the crystal lattice. Consequently, densification is promoted via the diffusion of oxygen vacancies. Note that neither of the lithium aluminate phases, LiAlO2 and Li2Al4O7, were detected.

* Correspondence address, Ivar Reimanis Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80403, USA Tel.: +1 303 273 3549 Fax: +1 303 273 3057 E-mail:


[1] D.W.Roy, J.L.Hastert: „Method for Manufacturing a Transparent Ceramic Body“, United States Patent 3974249-264/65 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

[2] K.Uematsu, R.M.Cannon, R.D.Bagley, M.F.Yan, U.Chowdry, H.K.Bowen: „Microstructure Evolution Controlled by Dopants and Pores at Grain Boundaries“, Proceedings of an International Symposium on Factors in Densification and Sintering of Oxides and Non-Oxide Ceramics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan (1979) 190205.Search in Google Scholar

[3] E.A.Maguire, Jr., R.L.Gentilman: Ceramic Bulletin60 (1981) 255256.Search in Google Scholar

[4] F.F.Lange, D.R.Clarke: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.65 (1982) 502506.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1982.tb10341.xSearch in Google Scholar

[5] D.W.Roy, J.L.Hastert: Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc.4 (1983) 502509.10.1002/9780470320129.ch4Search in Google Scholar

[6] K.W.White, G.P.Kelkar: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75 (1992) 34403444.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1992.tb04446.xSearch in Google Scholar

[7] A.Ghosh, K.W.White, M.G.Jenkins, R.C.Bradt: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.74 (1991) 16241630.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1991.tb07149.xSearch in Google Scholar

[8] J.G.Li, T.Ikegami, J.H.Lee, T.Mori: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.83 (2000) 28662868.10.1111/j.1151-2916.2000.tb01648.xSearch in Google Scholar

[9] M.C.L.Patterson, D.W.Roy, G.Gilde, in: J.W.McCauley, A.Crowson, W.A.Gooch, Jr., A.M.Rajendran, S.J.Bless, K.V.Logan, M.Normandia, S.Wax (Eds.), Ceramic Transactions Vol. 134, The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH (2002) 595608.Search in Google Scholar

[10] G.Villalobos, J.Sanghera, I.Aggarwal: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.88 (2005) 11281131.10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00209.xSearch in Google Scholar

[11] G.Villalobos, J.S.Sanghera, I.D.Aggarwal, R.Miklos, in: Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. (2005).Search in Google Scholar

[12] H.J.Kleebe, I.E.Reimanis, R.L.Cook: Ceram. Trans.157 (2005) 6168.Search in Google Scholar

[13] K.Rozenburg, I.E.Reimanis, H.J.Kleebe, R.L.Cook: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90 (2007) 20382042.10.1111/j.1551-2916.2007.01723.xSearch in Google Scholar

[14] K.Rozenburg, I.E.Reimanis, H.J.Kleebe, R.L.Cook: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2007) in press.Search in Google Scholar

[15] H.Su, D.L.Johnson: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.79 (1996) 32113217.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1996.tb08097.xSearch in Google Scholar

[16] W.C.Johnson: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.57 (1974) 342344.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1974.tb10918.xSearch in Google Scholar

[17] C.J.Ting, H.-Y.Lu: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.82 (1999) 841845.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1999.tb01844.xSearch in Google Scholar

[18] C.J.Ting, H.-Y.Lu: Acta Mater.47 (1999) 817830.10.1016/S1359-6454(98)00400-5Search in Google Scholar

[19] Y.M.Chiang, W.-D.Kingery: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.73 (1990) 11531158.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1990.tb05172.xSearch in Google Scholar

[20] H.-J.Kleebe, F.Siegelin: Z. Metallkd.94 (2003) 211217.10.3139/146.030211Search in Google Scholar

[21] F.Siegelin, H.-J.Kleebe, S.Sigl: J. Mater. Res.18 (2003) 26082617.10.1557/JMR.2003.0365Search in Google Scholar

[22] R.B.Heady, J.W.Cahn: J. Amer. Ceram Soc.53 (1970) 406409.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1970.tb12142.xSearch in Google Scholar

[23] T.H.Courtney: Met. Trans. A8 (1977) 679689.10.1007/BF02664776Search in Google Scholar

[24] R.M.German: Liquid Phase Sintering, Plenum Press, New York, 1985.10.1007/978-1-4899-3599-1Search in Google Scholar

[25] J.E.Marion, C.H.Hsueh, A.G.Evans: J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.70 (1987) 708713.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1987.tb04868.xSearch in Google Scholar

[26] M.Kriens, G.Adiwidjaja, W.Guse, K.H.Klaska, C.Lathe, H.Saalfeld: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte8 (1996) 344350.Search in Google Scholar

[27] P.E.Hart, R.B.Atkin, J.A.Pask: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.53 (1970) 8386.10.1111/j.1151-2916.1970.tb12015.xSearch in Google Scholar

[28] S.K.Chen, M.Y.Chen, S.J.Lin: J. Am. Ceram. Soc.85 (2002) 540444.10.1111/j.1151-2916.2002.tb00130.xSearch in Google Scholar

[29] M.Marezio: Acta Cryst.19 (1965) 396400.10.1107/S0365110X65003511Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2007-6-2
Accepted: 2007-9-12
Published Online: 2013-06-11
Published in Print: 2007-12-01

© 2007, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Downloaded on 29.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow