Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 11, 2013

Development of multifunctional thin films using high-throughput experimentation methods

  • Alfred Ludwig , Robert Zarnetta , Sven Hamann , Alan Savan and Sigurd Thienhaus


This paper describes the use of thin film high-throughput experimentation methods for the efficient development of multifunctional materials, using Ni – Ti – X and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys as examples. The thin films were fabricated in the form of binary, ternary, and quaternary materials libraries by special magnetron sputter deposition processes. These materials libraries were subsequently processed and characterized by high-throughput experimentation methods in order to relate compositional information with structural and functional properties. For this, appropriate visualization of the data is necessary. Results show that the martensitically transforming regions in ternary thin films are generally larger than was known from literature. Within these regions, the variation of the functional properties can be mapped with respect to the composition and microstructure, and thus the most suitable materials for applications can be effectively selected.

* Correspondence address, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alfred Ludwig, Institut für Werkstoffe/Werkstoffe der Mikrotechnik, Fakultät Maschinenbau, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany, Tel.: +49 234 32 27492, Fax: +49 234 32 14409, E-mail:


[1] S.Wilson, R.Jourdain, Q.Zhang, R.A.Dorey, C.R.Bowen, M.Willander, Q.Ul Wahab, S.Alhilli, O.Nur, E.Quandt, C.Johansson, E.Pagounis, M.Kohl, J.Matovic, B.Samel, W.van der Wijngaart, E.W.H.Jager, D.Carlsson, Z.Djinovic, M.Wegener, C.Moldovan, R.Iosub, E.Abad, M.Wendlandt, C.Rusu, K.Persson: Mater. Sci. Eng. R56 (2007) 1129.10.1016/j.mser.2007.03.001Search in Google Scholar

[2] T.Bourouina, E.Lebrasseur, G.Reyne, A.Debray, H.Fujita, A.Ludwig, E.Quandt, H.Muro, T.Oki, A.Asaoka: IEEE ASME J. Microelectromech. Syst.11 (2002) 355361.10.1109/JMEMS.2002.800561Search in Google Scholar

[3] A.Ludwig, E.Quandt: J. Appl. Phys.87 (2000) 46914695.10.1063/1.373132Search in Google Scholar

[4] A.Ludwig, M.Tewes, S.Glasmachers, M.Löhndorf, E.Quandt: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 242, Part2 (2002) 11261131.10.1016/S0304-8853(01)00979-9Search in Google Scholar

[5] H.Koinuma, I.Takeuchi: Nat. Mater.3 (2004) 429438.10.1038/nmat1157Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] W.F.Maier, K.Stöwe, S.Sieg: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.46 (2007) 60166067.10.1002/anie.200603675Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] R.A.Potyrailo, V.M.Mirsky: Chem. Rev.108 (2008) 770813.10.1021/cr068127fSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] V.Chevrier, J.R.Dahn: Meas. Sci. Technol.17 (2006) 13991404.10.1088/0957-0233/17/6/017Search in Google Scholar

[9] S.Thienhaus, R.Hiergeist, A.Savan, A.Ludwig: Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.894 (2006) 0894-LL01-04.1.Search in Google Scholar

[10] S.Thienhaus, C.Zamponi, H.Rumpf, J.Hattrick-Simpers, I.Takeuchi, A.Ludwig: Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.894 (2006) 0894-LL06-06.1.Search in Google Scholar

[11] A.Ludwig, J.Cao, J.Brugger, I.Takeuchi: Meas. Sci. Technol.16 (2005) 111118.10.1088/0957-0233/16/1/015Search in Google Scholar

[12] A.Ludwig, J.Cao, A.Savan, M.Ehmann: J. Alloy. Compd.446–447 (2007) 516521.10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.01.069Search in Google Scholar

[13] S.Hamann, M.Ehmann, S.Thienhaus, A.Savan, A.Ludwig: Sensors and Actuators A147 (2008) 576582.doi:10.1016/j.sna.2008.05.00710.1016/j.sna.2008.05.007Search in Google Scholar

[14] A.Gyobu, Y.Kawamura, H.Horikawa, T.Saburi: Mater. Trans.37 (1996) 697702.10.2320/matertrans1989.37.697Search in Google Scholar

[15] J.Cui, Y.S.Chu, O.O.Famodu, Y.Furuya, J.Hattrick-Simpers, R.D.James, A.Ludwig, S.Thienhaus, M.Wuttig, Z.Zhang, I.Takeuchi: Nat. Mater.5 (2006) 286290.10.1038/nmat1593Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[16] R.Löbel, S.Thienhaus, A.Savan, A.Ludwig: Mater. Sci. Eng. A481 (2008) 151155.10.1016/j.msea.2007.02.168Search in Google Scholar

[17] R.Zarnetta, A.Savan, S.Thienhaus, A.Ludwig: Appl. Surf. Sci.254 (2007) 743748.10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.03.074Search in Google Scholar

[18] G.Bozzolo, R.D.Noebe, H.O.Mosca: J. Alloy. Compd.389 (2005) 8094.10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.07.051Search in Google Scholar

[19] I.Takeuchi, O.O.Famodu, J.C.Read, M.A.Aronova, K.S.Chang, C.Craciunescu, S.E.Lofland, M.Wuttig, F.C.Wellstood, L.Knauss, A.Orozco: Nat. Mater.2 (2003) 180184.10.1038/nmat829Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] R.James, M.Wuttig: Philos. Mag. A77 (1998) 12731299.10.1080/01418619808214252Search in Google Scholar

[21] J.Cui, T.Shield, R.James: Acta Mater.52 (2004) 3547.10.1016/j.actamat.2003.08.024Search in Google Scholar

[22] R.D.James, Z.Zhang, in: A.Planes, L.Manosa, A.Saxena (Eds.), Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials, Springer, Berlin (2005) 159.Search in Google Scholar

[23] I.Takeuchi, C.J.Long, O.O.Famodu, M.Murakami, J.Hattrick-Simpers, G.W.Rubloff, M.Stukowski, K.Rajan: Rev. Sci. Instrum.76 (2005) 06222318.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2008-3-31
Accepted: 2008-6-12
Published Online: 2013-06-11
Published in Print: 2008-10-01

© 2008, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Downloaded on 5.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button