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Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 11, 2013

Nanocrystalline body-centred cubic beta-titanium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion

Wei Xu, Xiaolin Wu, Roberto B. Figueiredo, Mihai Stoica, Mariana Calin, Jürgen Eckert, Terence G. Langdon and Kenong Xia


Processing by high-pressure torsion at room temperature was employed to achieve a uniform nanostructure in a metastable Ti67.4Nb24.6Zr5Sn3 bcc β alloy with grains of ∼20 − 60 nm after five turns. By comparison, there was an ultrafine grain structure after equal-channel angular pressing at 903 K. The majority of refined grains were identified as bcc β-titanium with the presence of a small fraction of orthorhombic α″ martensite. It is proposed that the pronounced grain refinement is facilitated by a stress-/strain-induced β → α″ martensitic transformation. However, the presence of a large fraction of β phase in the high-pressure torsion processed samples is attributed to a reverse α″ → β martensitic transformation stimulated by the applied shear stress and the inhibition effect of the nanoscale grains on martensite formation.

* Correspondence address Dr. Wei Xu, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia. Tel.: +61-3-8344 4197, Fax: +61-3-9347 8784, E-mail:
Assoc. Prof. Kenong Xia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia Tel.: +61-3-8344 6664, Fax: +61-3-9347 8784, E-mail:


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Received: 2009-4-2
Accepted: 2009-9-7
Published Online: 2013-06-11
Published in Print: 2009-12-01

© 2009, Carl Hanser Verlag, München