Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 31, 2013

Three-dimensional morphology and mechanics of bone scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping

  • Jin Yu Simon Yoon , Hans Deyhle , Uwe Gbureck , Elke Vorndran , Felix Beckmann and Bert Müller


Alpha-beta-tri-calcium phosphate is a promising biomaterial to fabricate scaffolds for the reconstruction of osseous defects. In the present study, we demonstrate that three-dimensional printing allows tailoring the porosity and the mechanical properties of nature-analogue designed scaffolds. Sophisticated software tools applied to the acquired tomography data were used to characterize the printing quality and the porosity by means of the distance transform, the radial density distribution and the accessibility by virtual spheres. Analyzing the stress – strain curves of the scaffolds, the Young's modulus and the ultimate compressive strength were obtained. To reach mechanical properties comparable to those of jaw bone, the scaffolds were treated with phosphoric acid. Depending on the design, the compressive strength of the bone scaffolds lies between 30 and 60 MPa and their Young's modulus is between 50 and 140 MPa. Hence, prototypes for clinical trials can be fabricated in near future.

* Correspondence address Prof. Dr. Bert Müller, Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel c/o University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland, Tel.: +41 61 265 96 18, Fax: +41 61 265 96 99, E-mail:


[1] M.Fini, G.Giavaresi, P.Torricelli, V.Borsari, R.Giardino, A.Nicolini, A.Carpi: Biomed. Pharmacother.58 (2004) 487. 10.1016/j.biopha.2004.08.016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[2] O.Malard, J.Guicheux, J.M.Bouler, O.Gauthier, Montreuil, E.Aguado, P.Pilet, R.LeGeros, G.Daculsi: Bone36 (2005) 323. 10.1016/j.bone.2004.07.018Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] T.Tuli, O.Haechl, N.Berger, F.R.Kloss, R.Gassner, M.Rasse: Int. J. Oral Max. Surg.36 (2007) 1082. 10.1016/j.ijom.2007.08.460Search in Google Scholar

[4] O.Erdogan, D.M.Shafer, P.Taxel, M.A.Freilich: Oral Sur. Oral Med. O.104 (2007) 738. 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.04.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[5] S.M.Peltola, F.P.W.Melchels, D.W.Grijpma, M.Kellomäki: Ann. Med.40 (2008) 268. 10.1080/07853890701881788Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] A.S.Posner, F.Betts: Accounts Chem. Res.8 (1975) 273. 10.1021/ar50092a003Search in Google Scholar

[7] J.R.Honiball: MSc Thesis Industrial Engineering, Unversity of Stellenbosch, Capetown (2010).Search in Google Scholar

[8] B.Müller, H.Deyhle, F.Fierz, S.Irsen, J.Yoon, S.Mushkolaj, O.Boss, E.Vondran, U.Gbureck, Ö.Degistrici, M.Thie, B.Leukers, F.Beckmann, F.Witte: Proc. SPIE7401 (2009) 74010D. 10.1117/12.825487Search in Google Scholar

[9] F.C.Fierz, F.Beckmann, M.Huser, S.H.Irsen, B.Leukers, F.Witte, Ö.Degistirici, A.Andronache, M.Thie, B.Müller: Biomaterials29 (2008) 3799. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.06.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[10] U.Klammert, T.Reuther, C.Jahn, B.Kraski, A.C.Kübler, U.Gbureck: Acta Biomaterialia5 (2009) 727. 18835228 10.1016/j.actbio.2008.08.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] C.K.Chua, K.F.Leong, C.S.Lim: Rapid prototyping: principles and applications, World Scientific Pub Co Inc, Singapore (2010).10.1142/6665Search in Google Scholar

[12] U.Gbureck, T.Hölzel, C.J.Doillon, F.A.Müller, J.E.Barralet: Adv. Mater.19 (2007) 795. 10.1002/adma.200601370Search in Google Scholar

[13] F.Beckmann, J.Herzen, A.Haibel, B.Müller, A.Schreyer: Proc. SPIE7078 (2008) 70781D. 10.1117/12.794617Search in Google Scholar

[14] B.Müller, P.Thurner, F.Beckmann, T.Weitkamp, C.Rau, R.Bernhardt, E.Karamuk, L.Eckert, J.Brandt, S.Buchloh, E.Wintermantel, D.Scharnweber, H.Worch: Proc of SPIE4503 (2002) 178. 10.1117/12.452843Search in Google Scholar

[15] B.Müller, R.Bernhardt, T.Weitkamp, F.Beckmann, R.Bräuer, U.Schurigt, A.Schrott-Fischer, R.Glueckert, M.Ney, T.Beleites, C.Jolly, D.Scharnweber: Int. J. Mater. Res.98 (2007) 613. 10.3139/146.101507Search in Google Scholar

[16] A.C.Kak, M.Slaney: Principles of computerized tomographic imaging, IEEE Press, Philadelphia (1988).Search in Google Scholar

[17] P.Thurner, F.Beckmann, B.Müller: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B225 (2004) 599. 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.05.027Search in Google Scholar

[18] in Google Scholar

[19] J.V.Hajnal, D.L.G.Hill, D.J.Hawkes: Medical image registration, CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL (2001). 10.1201/9781420042474Search in Google Scholar

[20] B.Müller, F.Beckmann, M.Huser, F.Maspero, G.Szekely, K.Ruffieux, P.Thurner, E.Wintermantel: Biomol. Eng.19 (2002) 73. 10.1016/S1389-0344(02)00014-XSearch in Google Scholar

[21] in Google Scholar

[22] U.Köthe: Handbook on Computer Vision and Applications, Acadamic Press, San Diego (1999).Search in Google Scholar

[23] in Google Scholar

[24] P.E.Danielsson: Computer Graphics and Image Processing14 (1980) 227. 10.1016/0146-664x(80)90054-4Search in Google Scholar

[25] V.Karageorgiou, D.Kaplan: Biomaterials26 (2005) 5474. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.02.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] B.Müller, M.Riedel, P.Thurner: Microsc. Microanal.12 (2006) 97. 10.1017/S1431927606060168Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] A.M.O'MahonyJ.L.Williams, J.O.Katz, P.Spencer: Clin. Oral Implan. Res.11 (2000) 415. 10.1034/j.1600-0501.2000.011005415.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] U.Gbureck, T.Hölzel, I.Biermann, J.E.Barralet, L.M.Grover: J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. M.19 (2008) 1559. 10.1007/s10856-008-3373-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[29] N.Mehrban, J.Z.Paxton, J.Bowen, A.Bolarinwa, E.Vorndran, U.Gbureck, L.M.Grover: Adv. Appl. Ceram.110 (2011) 162. 10.1179/1743676110Y.0000000012Search in Google Scholar

[30] B.Müller, H.Deyhle, S.Lang, G.Schulz, T.Bormann, F.C.Fierz, S.E.Hieber: Int. J. Mater. Res.103 (2012) 242. 10.3139/146.110663Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2011-7-13
Accepted: 2011-11-17
Published Online: 2013-05-31
Published in Print: 2012-02-01

© 2012, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Downloaded on 29.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow