Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 18, 2013

Mechanism of porosity growth during homogenisation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys

Alexander Epishin, Thomas Link, Igor Leonidovich Svetlov, Gert Nolze, Romeo Saliwan Neumann and Henning Lucas

Several mechanisms for porosity growth in single crystal nickel-based superalloys during homogenisation heat treatment have been proposed in the literature. They were carefully checked using different experimental methods, namely quantitative light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and density measurements. It is shown that the main mechanism is the Kirkendall–Frenkel effect, i.e. generation of voids due to uncompensated efflux of Al atoms from dissolving γ/γ′-eutectic areas. The Al diffusion is supported by the afflux of vacancies from surrounding γ-matrix which results in porosity growth. This conclusion is confirmed by the estimation of the vacancy afflux towards the dissolving eutectic.


d Correspondence address, Dr. Alexander Epishin, Technical University of Berlin, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Metallic Materials, Secr. BH18, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, D-10587 Berlin, Germany. Tel. +4903031478981, Fax: +4903031422996, E-mail:

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Received: 2012-10-18
Accepted: 2013-1-14
Published Online: 2013-02-18
Published in Print: 2013-08-08

© 2013, Carl Hanser Verlag, München