Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 5, 2016

Microstructures and properties of Cr–Cu/W–Cu bi-layer composite coatings prepared by mechanical alloying

Jiaping Zhang, Xiaomei Feng, Yifu Shen, Cheng Chen and Cuiyuan Duan


Cr–Cu/W–Cu bi-layer coatings with composite structures were fabricated by means of mechanical alloying. The Cr–Cu layer and the W–Cu layer were deposited successively and the as-synthesized bi-layer coating was made up of an inner Cr–Cu layer and an outer W–Cu layer. Microstructures, chemical and phase compositions of the as-prepared coatings were characterized. The results indicated that the bonding between the inner coating and the substrate was improved with the increase of Cu in the raw powder. The annealing treatment of the inner Cr–Cu layer was beneficial to the bonding between the inner Cr–Cu coating and the outer W–Cu coating layer. Mechanical properties such as microhardness, friction and wear resistance were tested. The as-synthesized coating could effectively improve the hardness and wear resistance of the Cu substrate.

*Correspondence address, Professor Yifu Shen, College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Jiangjun Road, Nanjing 210016, PR China, Tel.: +86 025 84895940, Fax: +86 25 52112626, E-mail:


[1] E.G.West: Copper and its Alloys, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK (1982).Search in Google Scholar

[2] T.Borkar, T.Borkar: Surf. Coat. Technol.205 (2011) 4124. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.02.057Search in Google Scholar

[3] T.I.Selinder, E.Coronel, E.Wallin: Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater.27 (2009) 507. 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2008.10.007Search in Google Scholar

[4] M.Groal, S.Kotowski, A.Nowotink, M.Pytel, M.Drajewicz, J.Sieniawski: Surf. Coat. Technol.237 (2013) 51. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.09.028Search in Google Scholar

[5] D.E.Wolfe, D.E.Wolfe: Surf. Coat. Technol.124 (2000) 142. 10.1016/S0257-8972(99)00644-1Search in Google Scholar

[6] Y.Zhang, B.A.Pint, K.M.Cooley, J.A.Haynes: Surf. Coat. Technol.202 (2008) 3839. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2008.01.023Search in Google Scholar

[7] Y.B.Guo, Z.G.Li, C.W.Yao, K.Zhang, F.G.Lu, K.Feng, J.Huang: Mater. Des.63 (2014) 100. 10.1016/j.matdes.2014.05.041Search in Google Scholar

[8] Y.B.Wang, S.S.Zhao, W.Y.Zhou, F.L.Liu, X.C.Lin: J. Mater. Process. Technol.214 (2014) 899. 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.12.009Search in Google Scholar

[9] X.B.Pei, J.Wang, Q.B.Wan, L.J.Kang, M.L.Xiao, H.Bao: Surf. Coat. Technol.205 (2011) 4380. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.03.036Search in Google Scholar

[10] S.Romankov, Y.Hayasaka, I.V.Shchetinin, J.M.Yoon, S.V.Komarov: Appl. Surf. Sci.257 (2011) 5032. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.01.017Search in Google Scholar

[11] C.Suryanarayana: Prog. Mater. Sci.46 (2001) 1. 10.1016/S0079-6425(99)00010-9Search in Google Scholar

[12] C.Suryanarayana, E.Ivanov, V.V.Boldyrev: Mater. Sci. Eng.A 304 (2001) 151. 10.1016/S0921-5093(00)01465-9Search in Google Scholar

[13] H.Q.Sun, Y.N.Shi, M.X.Zhang, K.Lu: Surf. Coat. Technol.202 (2008) 2859. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.10.025Search in Google Scholar

[14] K.Lu, K.Lu: Mater. Sci. Eng. A375 (2004) 38. 10.1016/j.msea.2003.10.261Search in Google Scholar

[15] S.Romankov, W.Sha, S.D.Kaloshkin, K.Kaevitser: Surf. Coat. Technol.201 (2006) 3235. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.06.044Search in Google Scholar

[16] Z.L.Zhan, Y.D.He, D.R.Wang, W.Gao: Intermetallics14 (2006) 75. 10.1016/j.intermet.2005.04.019Search in Google Scholar

[17] I.Lahiri, S.Bhargava: Powder Technol.189 (2009) 433. 10.1016/j.powtec.2008.07.003Search in Google Scholar

[18] J.P.Song, Y.Yu, Z.G.Zhuang, Y.Y.Lian, X.Liu, Y.Qi: J. Nucl. Mater.442 (2103) S208. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.326Search in Google Scholar

[19] L.U.Ogbuji: Surf. Coat. Technol.197 (2005) 327. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.01.116Search in Google Scholar

[20] C.Aguilar, S.Ordoñez, D.Guzman, P.A.Rojas: J. Alloys Compd.504 (2010) 102. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.05.061Search in Google Scholar

[21] T.Raghu, R.Sundaresan, P.Ramakrishnan, T.R.Rama Mohan: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 304 – 306 (2001) 438. 10.1016/S0921-5093(00)01444-1Search in Google Scholar

[22] Y.F.Meng, Y.F.Shen, C.Chen, Y.C.Li, X.M.Feng: Appl. Surf. Sci.282 (2013) 757. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.06.049Search in Google Scholar

[23] C.Chen, C.Y.Duan, Y.C.Li, X.M.Feng, Y.F.Shen: Powder Technol.277 (2015) 36. 10.1016/j.powtec.2015.02.053Search in Google Scholar

[24] Q.Zhao, Z.B.Shao, C.J.Liu, M.F.Jiang, X.T.Li, R.Zevenhoven, H.Saxén: J. Alloys Compd.607 (2014) 118. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.04.054Search in Google Scholar

[25] R.Pouriamanesh, J.V.Khaki, Q.Mohammadi: J. Alloys Compd.488 (2009) 430. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.08.150Search in Google Scholar

[26] S.N.Alam: Mater. Sci. Eng.A 433 (2006) 161. 10.1016/j.msea.2006.06.049Search in Google Scholar

[27] M.H.Maneshian, A.Simchi, Z.Razavi Hesabi: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 445 – 446 (2007) 86. 10.1016/j.msea.2006.09.005Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2015-10-25
Accepted: 2016-01-18
Published Online: 2016-06-05
Published in Print: 2016-06-10

© 2016, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

Scroll Up Arrow