Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 5, 2016

Simulation analysis on impurity distribution in mc-Si grown by directional solidification for solar cell applications

Nagarajan Somi Ganesan, Srinivasan Manickam, Aravinth Karuppanan and Ramasamy Perumalsamy

Abstract

We carried out global transient simulation of impurity distribution in multi-crystalline silicon grown by directional solidification using appropriate software. Non-metallic impurities such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen originate from the furnace parts and each impurity atom was segregated into the mc-Si ingot based on their solubility in the crystal. During the solidification process the temperature distribution causes melt fluctuation in the Si melt, which is controlled by applying an external body force that leads to a uniform distribution of impurity atoms. Here the uniform distribution of impurity atoms was obtained by rotating the crucible at 10 rpm and the investigations were also carried out without crucible rotation and with a crucible rotation rate of 3 rpm. In this paper we have analyzed the segregation of non-metallic impurity atoms and chemical reactions between the impurity atoms, wherein three types of simulations were carried out and their results analyzed.


*Correspondence address, Prof. P. Ramasamy, SSN Research Center, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603 110, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, Fax: +91 44 27475166, Tel.: +91 44 27469700, E-mail:

References

[1] B.Wu, N.Stoddard, R.Ma, R.Clark: J. Cryst. Growth310 (2008) 21782184. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.11.194 Search in Google Scholar

[2] A.Black, J.Medina, A.Pineiro, E.Dieguez: J. Cryst. Growth353 (2012) 1216. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.04.033 Search in Google Scholar

[3] L.Chen, L.Chen: J. Cryst. Growth354 (2012) 8692. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.06.010 Search in Google Scholar

[4] L.J.Liu, S.Nakano, K.Kakimoto: J. Cryst. Growth292 (2006) 515518. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2006.04.060 Search in Google Scholar

[5] C.Funke, E.Schmid, G.Gartner, S.Reibenweber, W.Futterer, A.Poklad, L.Raabe, O.Patzold, M.Stelter: J. Cryst. Growth401 (2014) 732736. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2013.12.059 Search in Google Scholar

[6] B.Gao, S.Nakano, K.Kakimoto: J. Cryst. Growth318 (2011) 255258. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.10.158 Search in Google Scholar

[7] A.D.Simirnov, A.D.Simirnov: J. Cryst. Growth310 (2008) 29702976. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.03.002 Search in Google Scholar

[8] S.Hisamatsu, H.Matsuo, S.Nakano, K.Kakimoto: J. Cryst. Growth311 (2009) 26152620. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.02.018 Search in Google Scholar

[9] B.Gao, X.J.Chen, S.Nakano, K.Kakimoto: J. Cryst. Growth312 (2010) 15721576. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.01.034 Search in Google Scholar

[10] B.Sopori, P.Rupnowski, V.Mehta, V.Budhraja, S.Johnston, N.Call, H.Moutinho, M.Al-Jassim: Conference paper NREL/CP-520-45012 (2009). Search in Google Scholar

[11] H.S.Fang, S.Wang, L.Zhou, N.G.Zhou, M.H.Lin: J. Cryst. Growth,346 (2012) 511. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.02.032 Search in Google Scholar

[12] R.Kvande, O.Mjos, B.Ryningen: Mater. Sci. Eng.A 414 – 414 (2005) 545549. 10.1016/j.msea.2005.09.035 Search in Google Scholar

[13] L.Zheng, X.Ma, D.Hu, H.Zhang, T.Zhang, Y.Wan: J. Cryst. Growth318 (2011) 313317. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.11.141 Search in Google Scholar

[14] B.Goa, S.Nakano, K.Kakimoto: JOM63 (2011) 4346. 10.1007/s11837-011-0011-8 Search in Google Scholar

[15] S.Nakano, B.Gao, K.Kakimoto: J. Cryst. Growth375 (2013) 6266. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2013.04.001 Search in Google Scholar

[16] H.Matsuo, R.Bairava Ganesh, S.Nakano, L.Liu, K.Arafune, Y.Ohshita, M.Yamaguchi, K.Kakimoto: J. Cryst. Growth310 (2008) 22042208. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.12.017 Search in Google Scholar

[17] K.Kakimoto, H.Matsuo, S.Hisamatsu, R.Birava Ganesh, G.Bing, X.J.Chen, L.Liu, H.Miyazawa, Y.Kangawa: Solid State Phenom. 156 – 158 (2010) 193198. 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.156-158.193 Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-01-14
Accepted: 2016-02-22
Published Online: 2016-06-05
Published in Print: 2016-06-10

© 2016, Carl Hanser Verlag, München